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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Studies on a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine With Passive Pitch-Flap Mechanism (Performance and Flow Analysis Around Wind Turbine)

[+] Author and Article Information
Yukimaru Shimizu, Yasunari Kamada

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mie University, 1515 Kamihama-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan

J. Fluids Eng 123(3), 516-522 (Mar 01, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1375817 History: Received September 12, 2000; Revised March 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Feuchtwang, J. B., Infiled, D. G., Schmeer, A., and Jeronimidis, G., 1996, “Development of self-twisting composite blades for passive pitch control of a wind turbine,” Proc. of 1996 European Union Wind Energy Conference (EUWEC), pp. 293–296.
Infield, D. G., Feuchtwang, J. B., and Fitches, P., 1999, “Development and testing of a novel self-twisting wind turbine rotor,” Proc. of 1999 European Wind Energy Conference, pp. 329–332.
Shimizu,  Y., 1998, “Studies on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Teetered Brake & Damper Mechanism,” JSME International Journal, Series B,41, No. 1, pp. 162–169.
Prouty, Raymond W., 1986, Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control, JPWS Engineering, Boston, pp. 102–107.
Shimizu,  Y., , 1985, “Studies on Flow Patterns Around Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and Wind Turbine Performance (Comparison Between the Blade Which is Given Optimum Twist Angle and Non-Twisted Blade),” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. B, 51, No. 471, pp. 3530–3538.
Shimizu, Y., 1990, Wind power technology (in Japanese), Power Corp., Tokyo, pp. 194–201.
Shimizu,  Y., , 1990, “Power Augmentation Effects of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine by Tip Vane (2nd Report, Flow Visualization Around Blade with Tip Vane),” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. B, 56, No. 522, pp. 502–507.

Figures

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(a) Experimental apparatus; (b) dimensions of test blade
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Overview of pitch-flap mechanism
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Schematic diagram of two-dimensional Laser Doppler velocity meter
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Relation between axial velocity u and azimuth angle ψ for fixed rotor at x=0
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(a) Power coefficient CP and torque coefficient CQ as a function of tip speed ratio λ for fixed rotor and passive rotor (uncertainty in CP: less than ±0.4 percent, in CQ: less than ±0.3 percent, in λ: less than ±0.2 percent); (b) flap angle, ζ, pitch angle, γ, as a function of rotational speed of rotor n (Uncertainty in ζ: less than ±0.1 degree, in γ : less than ±0.3 degree)
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(a) Output power P as a function of rotational speed of rotor n (Uncertainty in P: less than ±3 W, in n: less than ±1 rpm); (b) flap angle, ζ, pitch angle, γ, as a function of rotational speed of rotor n (Uncertainty in ζ: less than ±0.1 degree, in γ: less than ±0.3 degree)
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(a) Axial and radial velocity distribution for passive rotor (n=504 rpm, CPmax) and fixed rotor (n=690 rpm) (Uncertainty in ū/U: less than ±0.5 percent); (b) axial and radial velocity distribution for passive rotor (n=690 rpm, CP=0) (Uncertainty in ū/U: less than ±0.5 percent)
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Relationships among radius r, axial velocity u, attack angle α, thrust dT and torque dQ (Uncertainty in u: less than ±0.06 m/s, in a: less than ±0.4 degree, in dT: less than ±1 N, in dQ: less than ±0.08 N⋅m)
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(a) Lift and drag acting on the element of rotating blade at normal state; (b) lift and drag acting on the element near the blade tip at braking state
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(a) Schematic outline of tufted grid method at X-Y plane; (b) tufted grid method; (c) smoke method
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Flow visualization for passive rotor (γ/ζ=3) at CPmax
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Flow visualization by tufted grid method on X-Y (axial) (a) Axial plane (X-Y),z=0; (b) rotor plane (Y-Z),x=0.1D
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Flow visualization by smoke method on Y-Z (rotor) plane, x=0.1D for passive rotor (γ/ζ=3) at CP=0,U=4 m/s
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Flow field around passive rotor at CP=0

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