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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Formation of Air Core in Nozzles With Tangential Entry

[+] Author and Article Information
S. K. Dash, M. R. Halder, S. K. Som

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721 302, India

M. Peric

Fluiddynamics and Ship Theory Section, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Lämmersieth 90, 22305 Hamburg, Germany

J. Fluids Eng 123(4), 829-835 (Aug 10, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1412845 History: Received June 27, 2001; Revised August 10, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Chang,  K. C., Wnag,  M. R., Wu,  W. J., and Hong,  C. H., 1993, “Experimental and Theoretical Study on Hollow-Cone Spray,” J. Propul. Power, 9, No. 1, pp. 28–34.
Chen,  S. K., Lefebvre,  A. H., and Rollbuhler,  J., 1993, “Factors Influencing the Circumferential Liquid Distribution from Pressure Swirl Atomizers,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 115, pp. 447–452.
Datta,  A., and Som,  S. K., 2000, “Numerical Predictions of Air Core Diameter, Coefficient of Discharge and Spray Cone Angle in a Swirl Spray Nozzle,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21, pp. 412–419.
Kutty, S. P., Narashimhan, M., and Narayanaswamy, K., 1978, “Design and Prediction of Discharge Rate, Cone Angle and Air Core Diameter of Swirl Chamber Atomizers,” Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, pp. 93–100.
Rizk,  N. K., and Lefebvre,  A. H., 1985, “Internal Flow Characteristics of Simplex Swirl Atomizers,” AIAA J. of Propul. and Power, 1, No. 3, pp. 193–199.
Rizk, N. K., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1985, “Prediction of Velocity Coefficient of Spray Cone Angle for Simplex Swirl Atomizers,” Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. On Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, pp. 111C/2/1–16.
Som,  S. K., and Mukherjee,  S. G., 1980, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on the Formation of Air Core in a Swirl Atomizing Nozzle,” Appl. Sci. Res., 36, pp. 173–176.
Som,  S. K., 1983, “Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Formation of Air Core in a Swirl Spray Atomizing Nozzle Using a Power Law Non-Newtonian Liquid,” Appl. Sci. Res., 40, pp. 71–91.
Som,  S. K., and Biswas,  G., 1984, “Initiation of Air Core in a Swirl Nozzle Using Power Law Fluids,” Acta Mech., 51, pp. 179–197.
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Figures

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Geometry of the cylindrical (upper) and conical (lower) nozzle used in experimental and numerical investigations of air-core formation (dimensions are given in millimeters; arrows indicate water flow direction)
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A control volume in a two-dimensional grid with cell-wise local refinement and the notation used
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A photograph of air core in the conical nozzle, also showing the spreading of annular water jet at nozzle exit
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A photograph of air core in the cylindrical nozzle, showing a helical shape with two main twists and some secondary disturbance
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Numerical grid (coarse) used for the simulation of flow in the conical nozzle, indicating local refinement near inlet, nozzle throat, exit section, and air core region
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Computed pressure distribution in the nozzle (lowest at symmetry line, largest at outer wall)
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Computed axial velocity within conical nozzle
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Computed distribution of circumferential velocity in the nozzle
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Computed free surface shape in a cross-section through the conical nozzle
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Numerical grid used to compute the flow in a cylindrical nozzle, also showing distribution of water and air at nozzle exit
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Development of air core during the filling of the nozzle: distribution of water and air with velocity vectors in a longitudinal cross-section through the nozzle at four time instants, 500 time steps apart.
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The computed shape of the air core in a cylindrical nozzle

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