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Flows in Complex Systems

An Aerodynamic Investigation of an Isolated Rotating Formula 1 Wheel Assembly

[+] Author and Article Information
Gianluca Iaccarino

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Stanford University,
488 Escondido Mall,
Stanford, CA 94305-3030

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 3, 2012; final manuscript received October 8, 2012; published online November 20, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Sharath S. Girimaji.

J. Fluids Eng 134(12), 121101 (Nov 20, 2012) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007890 History: Received January 03, 2012; Revised October 08, 2012

The flowfield around a 60% scale rotating Formula 1 tire in contact with the ground in a closed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 500,000 was examined computationally and experimentally. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) equations and confirm the existence of large scale vortical and flow recirculating features. A replica deformable F1 tire model that includes four tire treads and all brake components was used to determine the sensitivity of the wake to cross flow within the tire hub as well as the flow blockage caused by the brake assembly. Several turbulence closures were employed and the one that matched closest to the experimental PIV data was the Reynolds stress model. The variability between the six turbulence closures is shown by comparing velocity profiles, pressure distributions, and vortex eccentricity. The sensitivity of the wake to four different hub geometries, contact patch boundary conditions, multiple reference frame (MRF) rotor and spoke treatment, and time step size are also discussed.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Configuration I—simplified wheel geometry with wheel fairings on both sides of rim

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Fig. 2

Configuration II—full wheel geometry with outer ducts, inner passages, and brake assembly

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Fig. 3

Configuration III—full wheel geometry with exterior brake ducts and spokes, but all passages are blocked

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Fig. 4

Configuration IV—simplified wheel geometry with wheel fairings on both sides of rim and mass efflux from the lower segment of outboard wheel fairing (efflux area shown in dark gray)

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Fig. 5

Schematic of wind tunnel with rolling road showing the boundaries of the computational domain

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Fig. 6

Schematic showing the locations of the 3 streamwise planes (center, –4.5 cm, and –8.0 cm) and 2 spanwise planes (y = 0.57D and y = 0.77D) where PIV data was acquired

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Fig. 7

Four different views showing the full geometry (CII) mesh

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Fig. 8

Inplane velocity vectors for two spanwise planes located in the wake of CI (time-averaged URANS simulations)

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Fig. 9

Inplane velocity vectors for two spanwise planes located in the wake of CIII (time-averaged URANS simulations)

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Fig. 10

Inplane velocity vectors for two spanwise planes located in the wake of CII. CFD velocity vectors derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 11

Inplane velocity vectors for two spanwise planes located in the wake of CIV (time-averaged URANS simulations)

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Fig. 12

Inboard ground and outboard hub vortex core location comparison for CII at a spanwise plane located at x/D = 1.14. CFD velocity vectors derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 13

Contour plot of inplane velocity from PIV data showing 0 deg, 90 deg, 180 deg, and 270 deg radial profiles for both the inboard ground vortex and outboard hub vortex

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Fig. 14

CII inboard ground vortex eccentricity and intensity shown by plotting nondimensionalized (by half of distance between CVP cores) radial distance from the core of the vortex versus the inplane velocity (v2+w2). CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 15

CII outboard hub vortex eccentricity and intensity shown by plotting nondimensionalized (by half of distance between CVP cores) radial distance from the core of the vortex versus the inplane velocity (v2+w2). CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 16

Time-averaged surface pressure profiles for five streamwise planes

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Fig. 17

Contour plot of the time-averaged unsteady Rkε center plane velocity magnitude (u2+v2+w2) for CII. The solid black box represents the PIV window dimensions for the center plane and the dotted black lines represent the PIV window dimensions for the –4.5 cm and –8.0 cm planes. The white dotted lines represent the locations where velocity profiles were compared.

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Fig. 18

CII streamwise velocity profiles for the center plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 19

CII vertical velocity profiles for the center plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 20

CII streamwise velocity profiles for the –8.0 cm plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 21

CII vertical velocity profiles for the –8.0 cm plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 22

CII streamwise velocity profiles for the –4.5 cm plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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Fig. 23

CII vertical velocity profiles for the –4.5 cm plane. CFD velocity profiles derived from time-averaged URANS simulations.

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