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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—Part II: Assessments of Methodology

[+] Author and Article Information
K. L. Coleman

Graduate School of Design,
Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA 02139

O. G. McGee, III

Professor
Mechanical Engineering,
Howard University,
Washington, DC 20059

1Present address: Staff Engineer, CH2M Hill, Atlanta, GA 30328.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 24, 2010; final manuscript received June 11, 2011; published online April 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Chunill Hah.

J. Fluids Eng 135(5), 051102 (Apr 03, 2013) (21 pages) Paper No: FE-10-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4006245 History: Received January 24, 2010; Revised June 11, 2011

A theoretical assessment was made explaining how aeromechanical feedback control can be implemented to stabilize rotating stall inception in high-speed axial compression systems. Ten aeromechanical control strategies were quantitatively evaluated based on the control-theoretic formulations and dimensionless performance analysis outlined in the Part I companion paper (McGee and Coleman, 2013, “Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—Part I: Control-Theoretic Models,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(3), p. 031101). The maximum operating range for each aeromechanical control scheme was predicted for optimized structural parameters. Predictability and changeability in the hydrodynamic pressure, temperature, density, operability, and aeromechanical performance of dynamically-compensated, high-speed compressor maps of corrected pressure, corrected mass flow, corrected speeds, temperature ratios, and optimum efficiency were compared for the various aeromechanical control strategies. Compared with dynamically-compensated, low-speed compressor maps of pressure rise and flow coefficient (Gysling and Greitzer, 1995, “Dynamic Control of Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors Using Aeromechanical Feedback,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(3), pp. 307–319; McGee et al., 2004, “Tailored Structural Design and Aeromechanical Control of Axial Compressor Stall—Part I: Development of Models and Metrics, ASME J. Turbomach, 126(1), pp. 52–62; Fréchette et al., 2004, “Tailored Structural Design and Aeromechanical Control of Axial Compressor Stall—Part II: Evaluation of Approaches,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(1), pp. 63–72), the present study shows that the most promising aeromechanical designs and controls for a class of high-speed compressors were the use of dynamic fluid injection. Dynamic compensations involving variable duct geometries and dynamically-re-staggered IGV and rotor blades were predicted to yield less controllability under high-speed flow environments. The aeromechanical interaction of a flexible casing wall was predicted to be destabilizing, and thus should be avoided in high-speed compression systems as in low-speed ones by designing sufficiently rigid structures to prevent casing ovalization or other structurally-induced variations in tip clearance.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 7

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc =  0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a baseline 3-stage laboratory compressor showing the surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) operating, and maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 6

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc =  0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a baseline single-stage laboratory compressor showing the surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) operating, and maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 8

Compressible, high-speed, corrected flow range extension at the design corrected speed (Nc = 1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Schemes #1–8), referenced against incompressible, low-speed flow range extension (density ratio π=ρ3/ρ1 = 1 (or corrected pressure δc=δ/ρ=1), i.e., the pressure/temperature ratio set to unity) (see Gysling and Greitzer [2], McGee et al. [3], and Fréchette et al. [4])

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Fig. 9

Compressible, high-speed, corrected flow range extension at the design corrected speed (Nc = 1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Schemes #1–10), referenced against incompressible, low-speed flow range extension (density ratio π=ρ3/ρ1 = 1 (or corrected pressure δc=δ/ρ=1), i.e., the pressure/temperature ratio set to unity) (see Gysling and Greitzer [2], McGee et al. [3], and Fréchette et al. [4])

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Fig. 10

Compressible, high-speed, maximum achievable effective slope at the design corrected speed (Nc = 1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Schemes #1–8), referenced against incompressible, low-speed, maximum achievable effective slope (see Gysling and Greitzer [2], McGee et al. [3], and Fréchette et al. [4])

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Fig. 11

Compressible, high-speed, maximum achievable effective slope at the design corrected speed (Nc = 1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Schemes #1–10), referenced against incompressible, low-speed, maximum achievable effective slope (see Gysling and Greitzer [2], McGee et al. [3], and Fréchette et al. [4])

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Fig. 12

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #1) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 13

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #1) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 14

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #2) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 5

Structural control parameters for maximum stable flow range extension of dynamically-compensated MIT 3-stage axial compressor. Optimal structural frequency, Q, and damping ratio, ζ, are shown for the various aeromechanical schemes. (McGee et al. [3].) (Note: Time lags not considered in the present study; frequency range considered from 0.3 to 1.1 for the 3-stage Scheme #10 to achieve reasonable stability.)

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Fig. 4

Structural control parameters for maximum stable flow range extension of dynamically-compensated MIT single-stage axial compressor. Optimal structural frequency, Q, and damping ratio, ζ, are shown for the various aeromechanical schemes. (McGee et al. [3].) (Note: Time lags not considered in the present study.)

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Fig. 3

Research laboratory compressor characteristics and loss buckets modeled in this study: (a) MIT single-stage (Gysling and Greitzer [2]), and (b) MIT 3-stage (Haynes et al. [7]); Φ=Vx/UR is the axial flow coefficient through the compressor, with Vx defining the axial flow velocity, and UR denoting the mean line rotor speed; the total-to-static pressure rise coefficient is ψts=(P3 - P1)/(12ρoUR2)

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Fig. 2

Block diagram representation of the aeromechanical feedback loop

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Fig. 1

Aeromechanical feedback schemes (McGee et al. [3])

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Fig. 27

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #8) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 28

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #9) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 29

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #10) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 15

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #2) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 16

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #3) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 17

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #3) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 18

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #4) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 19

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #4) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 20

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #5) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 21

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #5) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 22

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #6) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 23

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #6) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 24

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #7) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 25

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated 3-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #7) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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Fig. 26

Compressible pressure rise characteristics (corrected pressure ratio (density ratio) versus corrected flow) at various corrected speeds (Nc = 0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0,1.1) of a dynamically-compensated single-stage laboratory compressor (Scheme #8) showing the effective surge T3/T1 (compressor exit/inlet) and T4/T1 (turbine inlet/compressor inlet) effective operating, and effective maximum efficiency lines

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