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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Shock-Driven Particle Transport Off Smooth and Rough Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick J. Wayne

e-mail: pwayne@unm.edu

Peter Vorobieff

Professor
Mem. ASME
e-mail: kalmoth@unm.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131

Hugh Smyth

Associate Professor
College of Pharmacy,
University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: hsmyth@mail.utexas.edu

Tennille Bernard

Graduate Research Assistant
Secretary, ASME NM Chapter
e-mail: tenncb10@unm.edu

Clint Corbin

Graduate Research Assistant
e-mail: clcorbin@unm.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131

Andy Maloney

Postdoctoral Researcher
College of Pharmacy,
University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: amaloney@austin.utexas.edu

Joseph Conroy

Staff Engineer
Applied Research Associates,
Albuquerque, NM 87110
e-mail: Jconroy@ara.com

Ross White

Sales Engineer
Flow Science, Inc.,
Santa Fe, NM 87505
e-mail: ross.liam.white@gmail.com

Michael Anderson

Research Scientist
Illinoisrocstar LLC,
Champaign, IL 61826
e-mail: mjanderson@illinoisrocstar.com

Sanjay Kumar

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Texas—Brownsville,
Brownsville, TX 78520
e-mail: sanjay.kumar@utb.edu

C. Randall Truman

Professor
Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131
e-mail: truman@unm.edu

Deepti Srivastava

Graduate Research Assistant
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: dsrivas@ncsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 14, 2012; final manuscript received February 13, 2013; published online April 8, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bart van Esch.

J. Fluids Eng 135(6), 061302 (Apr 08, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-12-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4023786 History: Received August 14, 2012; Revised February 13, 2013

The behavior of respirable particles being swept off a surface by the passage of a shock wave presents an interesting but little-studied problem. This problem has wide-ranging applications, from military to aerospace, and is being studied both numerically and experimentally. Here, we describe how a shock tube facility was modified to provide a dependable platform for such a study, with highly repeatable and well-characterized initial conditions. During the experiments, particle size distribution, surface chemical composition (that determines adhesion force between the particles and the surface), and the Mach number are closely controlled. Time-resolved visualization of the particle cloud forming after the shock passage provides insights into the physics of the flow, including the effect of the adhesion force on the growth of the cloud.

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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the shock tube facility. Shock direction is from right to left.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for inserting surface samples with a layer of particles into the test section. Top: image and schematic of the mounting rod. Bottom: close-up of test section with adapter for the mounting rod, as seen from below. Arrow indicates the rod insertion direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

View of microrough (left) and smooth (right) surfaces

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Fig. 4

View of atomic-force microscope cantilever tip with attached particle and schematic of a colloidal-probe adhesion force measurement. A. Cantilever tip initially not in contact with sample surface. B. Sample is slowly raised towards the tip; cantilever snaps onto the surface due to attractive forces. C. Sample continues to rise, cantilever beam deflects to a set point (predefined force). D. Sample is lowered, particle adheres until it snaps off surface. Then Fad = −kz (Hooke's law).

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Fig. 5

Sonication and shock acceleration processes. Left—schematic of scintillation vial with surface sample attached to mounting rod during particle deposition in sonicator. Right—mounting rod with surface sample and deposited monolayer of particles in test section (line denotes shock front).

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Fig. 6

Top—view of rough surfaces with depleted outer layers (left) and unused rough surfaces (right). Bottom—view of a smooth surface with a broken mica disc (left) and a fresh smooth surface (right). Arrows point to the depleted or damaged areas.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Image sequence of respirable particle transport by a Mach 1.67 shock off a smooth surface. Flow direction is from left to right: the first frame depicts the initial conditions just before the shock arrives, the time intervals between dynamic frames are 50 microseconds. Horizontal extent of each image is 6.5 cm. In each image, the extent of the space occupied by the particles is marked by a dotted line (before cloud forms) or rectangle (for images of clouds). Inserts show frame fragments containing the particles with 2X enlargement and inversion to simplify interpretation. The image of the initial conditions (top left) has been subtracted from each dynamic image to reduce glare.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Image sequence of respirable particle transport by a Mach 1.67 shock off a rough surface. Flow direction is from left to right: the first frame depicts the initial conditions just before the shock arrives, the time intervals between dynamic frames are 50 microseconds. Horizontal extent of each image is 6.5 cm. In each image, the extent of the space occupied by the particles is marked by a dotted line (before cloud forms) or rectangle (for images of clouds). Inserts show frame fragments containing the particles with 2X enlargement and inversion to simplify interpretation. The image of the initial conditions (top left) has been subtracted from each dynamic image to reduce glare.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Initial conditions image (top) and comparison of two late-time images of respirable particle transport by a Mach 1.67 shock off a smooth surface (second from above) and off a rough surface (third from above). Flow direction is from left to right. Images are inverted for ease of interpretation; arrows show the spanwise extent of the particle cloud. The first noninverted image (fourth from above) is a close-up of the particle cloud from the rough surface case. Note that the laser-illuminated particle clouds reflect in the far wall of the test section, producing a “ghost” image of the cloud (labeled “reflection” in one image). Noninverted images below show additional examples of clouds with Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex formation. White arrows point to vortices.

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Fig. 10

Schematic of thresholding procedure to determine the particle-cloud width and height. The vertical line denotes the streamwise (x) location where the cloud upper edge coordinate is sought. The line shows the variation of pixel intensity in the corresponding pixel column; the edge ymax of the cloud at the given x is where the intensity decreases to half between its maximum and minimum in the direction away from the surface. The highest value of ymax within the horizontal extent of the cloud gives the cloud height. The cloud image is inverted, with the darker area corresponding to the cloud.

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Fig. 11

Evolution of the particle cloud widths. Solid and dashed horizontal lines refer to average heights after 150 μs for the cases of rough and smooth surfaces, respectively.

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Fig. 12

Downstream positions of leading and trailing edges of respirable particle clouds versus time after shock acceleration. Cases of smooth and rough surfaces are considered. Tinted areas serve as guides for the streamwise extent of the particle clouds.

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