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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance— Part I: Control-Theoretic Models

[+] Author and Article Information
O. G. McGee

Professor
Mechanical Engineering,
Howard University,
Washington, DC 20059
e-mail: ogmcgee@yahoo.com

K. L. Coleman

Graduate School of Design,
Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA 02139

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Staff Engineer, CH2M Hill, Atlanta, GA 30328.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 24, 2010; final manuscript received June 13, 2011; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Chunill Hah.

J. Fluids Eng 135(3), 031101 (Feb 22, 2013) (23 pages) Paper No: FE-10-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4005822 History: Received June 11, 2011; Revised June 13, 2011

General methodologies are proposed in this two-part paper that further phenomenological understanding of compressible stall inception and aeromechanical control of high-speed axial compressors and engine performance. Developed in Part I are strategies for passive stabilization of compressible rotating stall, using tailored structural design and aeromechanical feedback control, implemented in certain classes of high-speed axial compressors used in research laboratories and by industry. Fundamentals of the stability of various dynamically-compensated, high-speed compressors was set down from linearized, compressible structural-hydrodynamic equations of modal stall inception extended further in this study from previous work. A dimensionless framework for performance-based design of aeromechanically-controlled compression system stall mitigation and engine performance is established, linking specified design flow and work-transfer (pressure) operability to model stages or local blade components, velocity triangle environment, optimum efficiency, extended stall margin and operability loci, and aeromechanical detailed design. A systematic evaluation was made in Part II (Coleman and McGee, 2013, “Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—Part II: Assessments of Methodology,” ASME J. Fluids Eng. (to be published)) on the performance of ten aeromechanical feedback controller schemes to increase the predicted range of stable operation of two laboratory compressor characteristics assumed, using static pressure sensing and local structural actuation to rudimentary postpone high-speed modal stall inception. The maximum flow operating range for each of the ten dynamically-compensated, high-speed compression systems was determined using optimized or “tailored” structural controllers, and the results described in Part II of the companion paper are compared to maximum operating ranges achieved in corresponding low-speed compression systems.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of rotating stall and surge. A sketch of the transient signatures that would be given by high response pressure probes in the compressor (for rotating stall) or in the combustor, or other volume downstream of the compressor (for surge) (cf., Fréchette [6])

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Fig. 2

Compressor operability and performance map illustrating the surge margin (cf. Fréchette [6])

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Fig. 3

Aeromechanical feedback schemes (McGee et al. [9])

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Fig. 4

Research laboratory compressor characteristics and loss buckets modeled in this study: (a) MIT single-stage (Gysling and Greitzer [8]), and (b) MIT 3-stage (Haynes et al. [13]); φ = VX/UR is the axial flow coefficient through the compressor, with VX defining the axial flow velocity, and UR denoting the mean line rotor speed; the total-to-static pressure rise coefficient, ψts=(P3-P1)/(12ρoUR2)

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Fig. 5

Block diagram representation of the aeromechanical feedback loop

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Fig. 6

(a) Structural control parameters for maximum stable flow range extension of dynamically-compensated MIT single-stage axial compressor. Optimal structural frequency, Q, and damping ratio, ζ, are shown for the various aeromechanical schemes. (McGee et al. [9].) (Note: Time lags not considered in the present study.) (b) Structural control parameters for maximum stable flow range extension of dynamically-compensated MIT 3-stage axial compressor. Optimal structural frequency, Q, and damping ratio, ζ, are shown for the various aeromechanical schemes. (McGee et al. [9].) (Note: Time lags not considered in the present study; frequency range considered from 0.3 to 1.1 for the 3-stage Scheme #10 to achieve reasonable stability.)

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