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Technical Briefs

An Experimental Review on Microbubble Generation to be Used in Echo-Particle Image Velocimetry Method to Determine the Pipe Flow Velocity

[+] Author and Article Information
Alinaghi Salari

e-mail: ai.ni.salar@gmail.com

M. B. Shafii

Associate Professor
e-mail: behshad@sharif.edu
Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology,
Azadi Avenue, Tehran 11155-9567, Iran

Shapour Shirani

Assistant Professor of Radiology
Tehran Heart Center Hospital,
Medical Sciences/University of Tehran,
Tehran Heart Centre, North Kargar Street, Tehran 14117-13138, Iran
e-mail: sh_shirani@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 26, 2012; final manuscript received December 2, 2012; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Peter Vorobieff.

J. Fluids Eng 135(3), 034501 (Feb 22, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-12-1217; doi: 10.1115/1.4023406 History: Received April 26, 2012; Revised December 02, 2012

Microbubbles are broadly used as ultrasound contrast agents. In this paper we use a low-cost flow focusing microchannel fabrication method for preparing microbubble contrast agents by using some surface active agents and a viscosity enhancing material to obtain appropriate microbubbles with desired lifetime and stability for any in vitro infusion for velocity measurement. All the five parameters that govern the bubble size extract and some efforts are done to achieve the smallest bubbles by adding suitable surfactant concentrations. By using these microbubbles for the echo-particle image velocimetry method, we experimentally determine the velocity field of steady state and pulsatile pipe flows.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The cross flow focusing geometry

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Fig. 2

The microchannel which is manufactured and used in this paper

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Fig. 10

Bubble volume versus liquid flow × liquid viscosity for different glycerol concentrations; saponin concentration remained constant at 1.3 CMC and the gas flow rate remained constant at Qg = 30  mlh-1

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Fig. 9

Effect of time on bubble shape

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Fig. 8

The effect of surfactant concentration on the bubble collapse rate; there is no viscosity enhancer. The pictures were obtained immediately after the microbubbles were generated. It should be noted that in the case of SLS (0.2 CMC) and SLS (0.5 CMC) the bubbles are so unstable that after a couple of minutes there are no bubbles. After reaching 1 CMC, the bubbles are more stable and they form a network.

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Fig. 7

Microbubble diameter versus flow ratio, using saponin and glycerol

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Fig. 6

Microscopic microbubble distribution, using saponin (1.6 CMC) as surfactant and glycerol (30% v/v) as viscosity enhancer

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Fig. 5

Microbubble size distribution, using SLS (3 CMC) as surfactant, with 6.5 mlh-1 gas flow and 26.5 mlh-1 liquid flow

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Fig. 4

Microbubble size distribution, using SLS (3 CMC) as surfactant, with 2 mlh-1 gas flow and 31 mlh-1 liquid flow

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Fig. 3

Microbubble size distribution, using SLS (3 critical micelle concentration (CMC)) as surfactant, with 8 mlh-1 gas flow and 25 mlh-1 liquid flow

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Fig. 11

Experimental setup of the microbubble injection process

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Fig. 12

Schematic of experimental setup

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Fig. 13

B_mode pictures (a) before microbubble injection, and (b) after microbubble injection

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Fig. 14

Velocity field in steady (a) and pulsatile flows (b) using the echo-PIV method

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