0
Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Mass Fraction Measurements in Controlled Oil-Water Flows Using Noninvasive Ultrasonic Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Anirban Chaudhuri

Scientist
Los Alamos National Laboratory,
Los Alamos, NM 87545
e-mail: anirban@lanl.gov

Dipen N. Sinha

Scientist and LANL Fellow
Los Alamos National Laboratory,
Los Alamos, NM 87545
e-mail: sinha@lanl.gov

Abhijit Zalte

Graduate Student
McDougall School of Petroleum Engineering,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: abhijit-zalte@utulsa.edu

Eduardo Pereyra

Research Associate
McDougall School of Petroleum Engineering,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: eduardo-pereyra@utulsa.edu

Charles Webb

Technology Advisor
San Joaquin Valley Business Unit,
Bakersfield, CA 93311
e-mail: charles.webb@chevron.com

Manuel E. Gonzalez

Global Alliance Manager
Chevron ETC,
Houston, TX 77002
e-mail: gonzame@chevron.com

From definition, if φ is the volume fraction of oil in the two-phase mixture and ρ is the composite mixture density, then

ρ=ρoφ+ρw(1-φ)

where ρo and ρw are the respective densities of the pure crude oil and pure water. If mo is the mass of pure crude oil and m is the total mass of the mixture, then we can also write

ρ=mmo/ρo+(m-mo)/ρw=1φm/ρo+(1-φm)/ρw

where φm=mo/m is the mass fraction of oil. These two expressions for ρ can be combined to get the expression for φm in Eq. (9).

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 8, 2013; final manuscript received November 13, 2013; published online January 27, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 136(3), 031304 (Jan 27, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1141; doi: 10.1115/1.4026055 History: Received March 08, 2013; Revised November 13, 2013

Controlled flow rate tests using mixtures of crude oil and water at different mass fractions were carried out in a flow loop at the University of Tulsa. A noninvasive acoustic method developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was applied to calculate the mass and volume fractions of oil and water in the mixed two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid mixture along with the instantaneous temperature. The densities and sound speeds in each fluid component were obtained in advance for calibration at various temperatures, and the fitting coefficients were used in the final algorithm. In this paper, we present composition measurement results using the acoustic technique from LANL for different mixture ratios of crude oil and water and at varying flow rates and a comparison of the results from the acoustics-based method with those from Coriolis meters that measured individual mass flow rates prior to mixing. The mean difference between the two metering techniques was observed to be less than 1.4% by weight and is dependent on the total flow rates. A Monte Carlo analysis of the error due to calibration uncertainty has also been included.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Whitaker, T. S., 1996, “Multiphase Flow Measurement: Current and Future Developments [for Offshore Industry Use],” Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Advances in Sensors for Fluid Flow Measurement, pp. 1/1–111.
Thorn, R., Johansen, G. A., and Hammer, E. A., 1999, “Direct Imaging of Two-Phase Flows by Electrical Impedance Measurements,” Proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, pp. 228–235.
Jaworski, A. J., and Meng, G., 2009, “On-Line Measurement of Separation Dynamics in Primary Gas/Oil/Water Separators: Challenges and Technical Solutions—A Review,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 68(1–2), pp. 47–59. [CrossRef]
Jaworski, A. J., and Dyakowski, T., 2005, “Measurements of Oil-Water Separation Dynamics in Primary Separation Systems Using Distributed Capacitance,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 16(2–3), pp. 113–127. [CrossRef]
Teniou, S., and Meribout, M., 2011, “Multiphase Flow Meters Principles and Applications: A Review,” Can. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2(8), pp. 290–293.
Meng, G., Jaworski, A. J., and White, N. M., 2006, “Composition Measurements of Crude Oil and Process Water Emulsions Using Thick-Film Ultrasonic Transducers,” Chem. Eng. Process., 45(5), pp. 383–391. [CrossRef]
Tsouris, C., and Tavlarides, L. L., 1993, “Volume Fraction Measurements of Water in Oil by an Ultrasonic Technique,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32(5), pp. 998–1002. [CrossRef]
Jana, A. K., Mandal, T. K., Chakrabarti, D. P., Das, G., and Das, P. K., 2007, “An Optical Probe for Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 18(5), pp. 1563–1575. [CrossRef]
García-Golding, F., Giallorenzo, M., Moreno, N., and Chang, V., 1995, “Sensor for Determining the Water Content of Oil-In-Water Emulsion by Specific Admittance Measurement,” Sens. Actuators, A, 47(1–3), pp. 337–341. [CrossRef]
Johansen, G. A., Frøystein, T., Hjertakery, B. T., and Olsen, Ø., 1996, “A Dual Sensor Flow Imaging Tomographic System,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 7(3), pp. 297–307. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y., Scott, B., and Cregger, B., 1990, “The Design, Development and Field Testing of a Water-Cut Meter Based on a Microwave Technique,” Proceedings of the SPE 65th Annual Technology Conference, pp. 775–782.
Heindel, T. J., 2011, “A Review of X-Ray Flow Visualization With Applications to Multiphase Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(7), p. 074001. [CrossRef]
Abro, E., and Johansen, G. A., 1999, “Improved Void Fraction Determination by Means of Multibeam Gamma-Ray Attenuation Measurements,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 10(2), pp. 99–108. [CrossRef]
Meng, G., Jaworski, A. J., and Kimber, J. C. S., 2006, “A Multi-Electrode Capacitance Probe for Phase Detection in Oil-Water Separation Processes: Design, Modelling and Validation,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 17(4), pp. 881–894. [CrossRef]
Al-Mubarak, A. M., 1997, “A New Method in Calculating Water Cut and Oil and Water Volumes Using Coriolis Meter,” Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Reizner, J. R., 2003, “Coriolis—The Almost Perfect Flow Meter,” Comput. Control Eng. J., 14(4), pp. 28–33. [CrossRef]
Henry, M., Tombs, M., Duta, M., Zhou, F., Mercado, R., Kenyery, F., Shen, J., Morles, M., Garcia, C., and Langansan, R., 2006, “Two-Phase Flow Metering of Heavy Oil Using a Coriolis Mass Flow Meter: A Case Study,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 17(6), pp. 399–413. [CrossRef]
Yang, M., 2011, “Measurement of Oil in Produced Water,” Produced Water: Environmental Risks and Advances in Mitigation Technologies, K.Lee and J.Neff, eds, Springer, New York, pp. 57–88.
Coulthard, J., 1973, “Ultrasonic Cross-Correlation Flowmeters,” Ultrasonics, 11(2), pp. 83–88. [CrossRef]
Xu, L. A., Yang, H. L., Zhang, T., Li, W., Chen, J., and Ran, Z. M., 1994, “A Clamp-On Ultrasound Cross-Correlation Flowmeter for Liquid/Solid Two-Phase Flow Measurement,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 5(3), pp. 203–208. [CrossRef]
Zhai, L.-S., Jin, N.-D., Gao, Z.-K., Wang, Z.-Y., and Li, D.-M., 2013, “The Ultrasonic Measurement of High Water Volume Fraction in Dispersed Oil-In-Water Flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 94, pp. 271–283. [CrossRef]
Chaudhuri, A., Osterhoudt, C. F., and Sinha, D. N., 2012, “Determination of Volume Fractions in Two-Phase Flows From Sound Speed Measurement,” Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Noise Control and Acoustics Division Conference at InterNoise.
Chaudhuri, A., Osterhoudt, C. F., and Sinha, D. N., 2012, “An Algorithm for Determining Volume Fractions in Two-Phase Liquid Flows by Measuring Sound Speed,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(10), 101301. [CrossRef]
Urick, R. J., 1947, “A Sound Velocity Method for Determining the Compressibility of Finely Divided Substances,” J. Appl. Phys., 18(11), pp. 983–987. [CrossRef]
Kuster, G. T., and Toksöz, M. N., 1974, “Velocity and Attenuation of Seismic Waves in Two-Phase Media: Part 1. Theoretical Formulations,” Geophysics, 39(5), pp. 587–606. [CrossRef]
Povey, M. J. W., 1997, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization, Academic Press, New York.
Longo, S., 2006, “The Effects of Air Bubbles on Ultrasound Velocity Measurements,” Exp. Fluids, 41(4), pp. 593–602. [CrossRef]
McClements, D. J., 1991, “Ultrasonic Characterisation of Emulsions and Suspensions,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 37(1–2), pp. 33–72. [CrossRef]
Vielma, M., Atmaca, S., Sarica, C., and Zhang, H.-Q., 2007, “Characterization of Oil-Water Flows in Horizontal Pipes,” Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Keskin, C., Zhang, H. Q., and Sarica, C., 2007, “Identification and Classification of New Three-Phase Gas/Oil/Water Flow Patterns,” Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Simmons, M. J. H., Komonibo, E., Azzopardi, B. J., and Dick, D. R., 2004, “Residence Time Distributions and Flow Behaviour Within Primary Crude Oilwater Separators Treating Well-Head Fluids,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 82(10), pp. 1383–1390. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z., Nur, A. M., and Batzle, M. L., 1990, “Acoustic Velocities in Petroleum Oils,” J. Pet. Tech., 42(2), pp. 192–200. [CrossRef]
Dieck, R. H., 2007, Measurement Uncertainty: Methods and Applications, 4th ed. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Ament, W. S., 1953, “Sound Propagation in Gross Mixtures,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 25(4), pp. 638–641. [CrossRef]
McClements, D. J., and Povey, M. J. W., 1989, “Scattering of Ultrasound by Emulsions,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 22(1), pp. 38–47. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow loop schematic. Symbols ρ, m, T, and WC stand for measured density, mass flow rate, temperature, and water-cut, respectively, while subscripts W and MO stand for water and mixed oil, respectively. The water line has a single Coriolis meter, while the oil line has a Coriolis meter and a Drexelbrook probe.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Oil and water holding tanks and pump layout at the TUFFP flow loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Differences in flow profiles in the absence and presence of a dynamic mixer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sound speeds and densities measured in the single phase crude oil (subscript o) and water (subscript w) samples as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of calculated water-cuts by weight from upstream Coriolis meters (1 – φloopcorr) and LANL meter (1 – φm) in typical test runs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured fluid temperatures during typical test runs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measurement error due to undertainties in independent variables

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Distribution of Monte Carlo trial runs for three different water-cut scenarios

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In