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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Two-Phase Upward Flow in a Slightly Deviated Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
Abolore Abdulahi

Process and Environmental Engineering Division,
University of Nottingham,
Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: enxaa34@nottingham.ac.uk

Barry J. Azzopardi

Process and Environmental Engineering Division,
University of Nottingham,
Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK

1Current address: Multiphase Flow Research Group, Process and Environmental Engineering Division, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD United Kingdom.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 7, 2013; final manuscript received January 17, 2014; published online March 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 136(5), 051302 (Mar 17, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1140; doi: 10.1115/1.4026565 History: Received March 07, 2013; Revised January 17, 2014

This study was undertaken to look at the effect of a slight inclination of pipe on upward flow characteristics especially at 10 deg from vertical position. Air-silicone oil flows in a 67 mm diameter pipe have been investigated using a capacitance wire mesh sensor (WMS) and electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). They provide time and cross-sectionally resolved data on void fraction. Superficial gas and liquid velocities of 0.05–1.9 and 0.05–0.5 were studied. Statistical methods and visual observation methods were used to characterize the fluid flows obtained into different flow patterns. From the output results from the tomography instruments, flow patterns were identified using both the reconstructed images as well as the characteristic signatures of Probability density function (PDF) plots of the time series of cross-sectionally averaged void fraction. Bubbly, cap bubble, slug, and churn flows were observed when the pipe was deviated by 10 deg from vertical pipe for the range of superficial gas velocities considered.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Offshore platforms in oil and gas industries [1]

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Fig. 2

Typical void fraction traces and the corresponding PDFs as reported by Ref. [3]

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Fig. 3

Flow patterns in inclined pipes

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram as well as the image of the experimental flow loop

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Fig. 5

Mixing configuration showing (a) two-phase flow mixing point, (b) layout of the gas injection unit

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Fig. 6

Measuring instruments used (a) capacitance wire mesh sensor (WMS) and (b) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT)

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Fig. 7

Comparison between WMS and ECT (both planes) void fraction data at different superficial velocities (Note: open symbols represent WMS versus ECT plane 1 while closed symbols represent ECT plane 2 versus ECT plane 1)

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Fig. 8

Comparison of standard deviation of void fraction from ECT plane 2 and WMS versus ECT plane 1 (Note: open symbols represent WMS versus ECT plane 1 while closed symbols represent ECT plane 2 versus ECT plane 1)

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Fig. 9

Time series of void fraction comparison for two-phase flow at 10 deg from vertical at liquid superficial velocity of 0.052 m/s and gas superficial velocities (m/s) (a) 0.05, (b) 0.34, (c) 0.50, (d) 0.90, and (e) 1.90. (Note: the flow patterns are bubbly, cap bubble, stable slug, unstable slug, and churn flows, respectively.)

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Fig. 10

Mean void fraction comparison with vertical pipe data of Ref. [28]: Open symbols represents vertical pipe while closed symbols represent the pipe mounted at a deviation of 10 deg from the vertical

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Fig. 11

Total pressure drop versus gas superficial velocity (open symbol = vertical pipe, closed symbol = inclined pipe)

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Fig. 12

Flow structures at 10 deg from vertical at a superficial liquid velocity of 0.052 m/s and superficial gas velocities (a) 0.05, (b) 0.15, (c) 0.28, (d) 0.34, (e) 0.40, (f) 0.50, (g) 0.70, (h) 0.90, (i) 1.40, and (j) 1.90 (Note: blue color indicates oil while red color indicates air)

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Fig. 13

PDF at superficial liquid velocity of 0.052 m/s with WMS

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Fig. 14

Comparison of PDFs at 10 deg from vertical at different superficial velocities (a) bubbly, (b) spherical cap bubble, (c) stable slug, (d) unstable slug, and (e) churn flows

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Fig. 15

Frequency for 10 deg from vertical with WMS

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Fig. 16

Structure velocity for 10 deg from vertical with ECT considering Ref. [36] correlation

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Fig. 17

Flow map for the experimental conditions based on mechanistic model of Ref. [13] and comparison with vertical map. (Note: Thin lines represent inclined pipe while thick lines represent vertical pipe, also open symbol for vertical pipe and closed symbol for inclined pipe. The symbols show Δ for cap bubble, ▪ for churn, ○ for slug, ♦ for bubbly, and x for annular flow of Ref. [28])

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