Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Development and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Initial Stages of Cavitation

[+] Author and Article Information
Eduard Amromin

Mechmath LLC,
Federal Way, WA 98003

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 26, 2013; final manuscript received February 5, 2014; published online May 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Olivier Coutier-Delgosha.

J. Fluids Eng 136(8), 081303 (May 19, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1520; doi: 10.1115/1.4026883 History: Received August 26, 2013; Revised February 05, 2014

Various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models employed for cavitating flows are substantially based on semi-empirical assumptions about cavitation forms and liquid flows around cavitating bodies. Therefore, the model applicability must be validated with experimental data. The stages of validation of the models are analyzed here with data on cavitating hydrofoils and axisymmetric bodies in water. Results of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), large-eddy simulation (LES), detached-eddy simulation (DES), and viscous-inviscid interaction methods are compared. The necessity of simultaneous validation of several flow parameters (as cavitation inception number and location of the appearing cavity) is pointed out. Typical uncertainties in water tunnel model test data (water quality, simplified account of wall effect) and possibilities to take them into account are also discussed. The provided comparison with experimental data manifests the impossibility to describe initial stages of cavitating flows using any single model and importance of employment of a combination of models for both the cavitation zones and the flow outside of cavities.

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Fig. 1

Cavity length oscillations on hydrofoils NACA16009 (from Ref. [2]) and NACA0010 (from Ref. [3])

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Fig. 2

Scheme of sheet cavitation in viscous fluid; the point of cavity surface contact to the body is either C (for completely hydrophilic body surface) or B (for partially hydrophobic body surface)

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Fig. 3

Snapshot of cavitation behind a self-driven body

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Fig. 4

Scheme of flow over a propeller model blade: AB is the laminar separation curve, and CD is the laminar-turbulent transition curve

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Fig. 5

Measured and computed with VII solver boundary layer reattachment abscissa behind laminar separation

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Fig. 6

Comparison of measured velocities in the vortex cores (symbols) with theoretical solutions

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Fig. 7

Measurements (triangles) and RANS results (filed squares) [26] for vortex cavitation downstream of a ducted propulsor in comparison with results [30] (empty squares) employed Eq. (3)

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Fig. 8

Computed pressure over the suction side of hydrofoil Cav2009 at CL = 0.65 and α = 7 deg in two channels

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Fig. 9

Effect of water quality on definition of σ in Caltech water tunnel experiments [32] with NACA4412

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Fig. 10

Computed (C-D from Ref. [18]; A by author) and observed appearing cavity on hydrofoil Cav2003

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Fig. 11

Cavitation inception and desinence numbers for Cav2003 (C-D computed in Ref. [18]; A by author)

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Fig. 12

Dependencies of σD (solid line: VII computation, solid triangles: measured), measured σI (clear triangles) and computed σI (dashed line) for NACA4412 at Re = 1.09 × 106

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Fig. 13

Cavitation inception and desinence numbers on bodies with hemispherical heads; experimental data [6] are marked as 5HB, data [39] as 12GG, and 40GG, data [31] as 5 K. Numbers and computational curves [10] show corresponding values of D (in cm).

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Fig. 14

Computed with RANS and measured lift coefficient of 2D hydrofoil Clark Y11.7

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Fig. 15

Computed [42] with VII and measured [38] lift coefficient of 3D swept hydrofoil Clark Y11.7

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Fig. 16

View of OK-2003 (its trailing edge is in the left) and its drag coefficient (in the right; computed: lines, measured: symbols) at two α

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Fig. 17

Computed (lines) and measured (symbols) lift coefficient of hydrofoil OK-2003 at two α; Re = 8 × 105




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