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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

The Effects of Pipe Geometry on Fluid Flow in a Muon Collider Particle Production System

[+] Author and Article Information
Yan Zhan, Foluso Ladeinde

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11794

Harold G. Kirk

Department of Physics,
Brookhaven National Laboratory,
Upton, NY 11973

Kirk T. McDonald

Department of Physics,
Princeton University,
Princeton, NJ 08544

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 8, 2013; final manuscript received February 9, 2014; published online July 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ye Zhou.

J. Fluids Eng 136(10), 101203 (Jul 24, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1227; doi: 10.1115/1.4027176 History: Received April 08, 2013; Revised February 09, 2014

Liquid mercury has been investigated as a potential high-Z target for the production of muon particles for the Muon Collider project. This paper investigates the dynamics of mercury flow in a design of the target delivery system, with the objective of determining pipe configurations that yield weak turbulence intensities at the exit of the pipe. Eight curved pipe geometries with various half-bend angles and with/without nozzles in the exit region are studied. A theoretical analysis is carried out for steady laminar incompressible flow, whereby the terms representing the curvature effects are examined. Subsequent simulations of the turbulent flow regime in the pipes are based on a realizable k-ɛ Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations approach. The effects of half-bend angles and the presence of a nozzle on the momentum thickness and turbulence intensity at the exit plane of the curved pipe are discussed, as are the implications for the target delivery pipe designs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sectional view of the target supply pipe of the MERIT experiment. The mercury jet generated at the end of the nozzle is on top of the nominal beam trajectory (both the mercury jet and proton beam move from right to left in this figure).

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Fig. 2

Coordinates along a curved pipe

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Fig. 3

Configurations of the pipes investigated: without nozzles (ϕ1/ϕ2 =  (a-1) 0 deg/0 deg, (b-1) 30 deg/30 deg, (c-1) 60 deg/60 deg, and (d-1) 90 deg/90 deg); with nozzles (ϕ1/ϕ2 =  (a-2) 0 deg/0 deg, (b-2) 30 deg/30 deg, (c-3) 60 deg/60 deg, and (d-2) 90 deg/90 deg)

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Fig. 4

Curvilinear coordinates for the periodically-curved pipe

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Fig. 5

Contour plots of (a) u*, and (b) v* at x = 60 of the periodically-curved pipe (Re = 1000) and contour plots of (c) Dr*, and (d) Dθ* based on the straight pipe velocity field. Here, CV implies “convex (inner) side,” CC is the “concave (outer) side.”

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Fig. 6

The sketch of a curved pipe with a 90 deg bend. Here, CV implies “convex (inner) side,” CC is the “concave (outer) side,” (xc,yc) denotes the curvature center, and R is the radius of curvature.

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Fig. 7

Longitudinal distribution of static pressure at the convex (θ = −90 deg), concave (θ = 90 deg), and bottom (θ = 0 deg) regions of the 90 deg bend (Re = 60,000)

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Fig. 8

Fully developed normalized velocity profile at the pipe inlet

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Fig. 10

Momentum thickness distribution at the exit plane of the pipes with half-bend angles of: (a) 0 deg/0 deg, (b) 30 deg/30 deg, (c) 60 deg/60 deg, and (d) 90 deg/90 deg. These pipes have nozzles and θ = 180 deg, 0 deg correspond to the convex and concave sides of the pipes, respectively.

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Fig. 9

Momentum thickness distribution at the exit plane of the pipes with half-bend angles of: (a) 0 deg/0 deg, (b) 30 deg/30 deg, (c) 60 deg/60 deg, and (d) 90 deg/90 deg. These pipes have nozzles and θ = 180 deg, 0 deg correspond to the convex and concave sides of the pipes, respectively.

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Fig. 11

The horizontal distribution of the turbulence intensity at the exit plane. The subscripts “nzl” and “nnzl” denote the presence or absence of a nozzle at the pipe exit.

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Fig. 12

Radial distribution of the U* in the 0 deg/0 deg pipe

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Fig. 13

Radial distribution of U* in the 30 deg/30 deg pipe

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Fig. 14

Radial distribution of U* in the 60 deg/60 deg pipe

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Fig. 15

Radial distribution of U* in the 90 deg/90 deg pipe

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Fig. 16

Radial distribution of U* in the 0 deg/0 deg pipe without (squares) and with (triangles) a nozzle at the following 3 locations along the pipe: (a) s = 0-, (b) s = 4.032, and (c) s = 8.3375

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Fig. 17

Radial distribution of U* in the 30 deg/30 deg pipe without (squares) and with (triangles) a nozzle at the following five locations along the pipe: (a) s = 0-, (b) ϕ1 = 30 deg, (c) ϕ2 = 30 deg, (d) s = 4.032, and (e) s = 8.3375

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Fig. 18

Radial distribution of U* between the 60 deg/60 deg pipe without (squares) and with (triangles) a nozzle at the following five locations along the pipe: (a) s = 0-, (b) ϕ1 = 60 deg, (c) ϕ2 = 60 deg, (d) s = 4.032, and (e) s = 8.3375

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Fig. 19

Radial distribution of U* between the 90 deg/90 deg pipe without (squares) and with (triangles) a nozzle at the following five locations along the pipe: (a) s = 0-, (b) ϕ1 = 30 deg, (c) ϕ1 = 60 deg, (d) ϕ1 = 90 deg, and (e) ϕ2 = 0 deg

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Fig. 20

Radial distribution of U* between the 90 deg/90 deg pipe without (squares) and with (triangles) a nozzle at the following four locations along the pipe: (f) ϕ2 = 30 deg, (g) ϕ2 = 90 deg, (h) s = 4.032, and (i) s = 8.3375

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