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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Particle Motion in a Macroscale, Multiwavelength Acoustic Field

[+] Author and Article Information
Alireza Setayeshgar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2G8, Canada
e-mail: Setayesh@ualberta.ca

Michael G. Lipsett

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2G8, Canada
e-mail: mlipsett@ualberta.ca

Charles R. Koch

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2G8, Canada
e-mail: Bob.koch@ualberta.ca

David S. Nobes

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2G8, Canada
e-mail: dnobes@ualberta.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 7, 2014; final manuscript received April 28, 2014; published online September 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Alfredo Soldati.

J. Fluids Eng 137(1), 011302 (Sep 10, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4027777 History: Received January 07, 2014; Revised April 28, 2014

Particle motion due to ultrasonic acoustic radiation in a macroscale, multiwavelength acoustic chamber is investigated and compared with available theories. Primary acoustic radiation force theory has been extensively developed to predict single particle motion in a microscale, single-node acoustic chamber/channel. There is a need to investigate the applicability of this theory to macroscale, multiwavelength acoustic channels utilizing the acoustic radiation force for separating polydispersed particles. A particle-tracking velocimetry (PTV) approach for measuring individual particle motion is developed specifically to track particles as they densify at an acoustic pressure node. Particle motion is tracked over the lifetime of their motion to a node. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed in the early stages of particle motion, where particles can be considered individually. Only in the densified region of the acoustic pressure node is there some mismatch with theory. The acoustic energy density of the acoustic chamber, a parameter intrinsically associated with the system by the theory, is also determined experimentally for different conditions and shown to be constant for all investigated system settings. The investigation demonstrates the capability of available theory in predicting the motion of polydispersed particles in macroscale, multiwavelength acoustic chambers.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Achieved ACF for constant speed of sound values; indicated ACF for different materials in water. c is speed of sound in particle.

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Fig. 2

Pressure node and antinode locations and transverse (horizontal) forces directions on particles; longitudinal acoustic wave is shown in the transverse direction

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Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the main experimental components and (b) digital image of the experimental setup

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Fig. 4

Detection of particles in images in different situations: (a) even distribution of particles before applying the acoustic wave and (b) densification of particles to bands due to the acoustic radiation force

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Fig. 5

Particle/bubble trajectories in the field of view in a sample pressure acoustic force experiment; while particles densify at the pressure nodes, the bubbles move to pressure antinodes. An example of a bubble motion is highlighted in the rectangle.

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Fig. 6

Raw data images highlighting the separation process. Time increments relative to the onset of the acoustic field are shown in the figure.

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Fig. 7

(a) Summed intensity of Fig. 6 (t = 600 ms) in the x direction; locations of pressure nodes are found via these intensity plots. (b) FFT of the image intensity plot in Fig. 7(a).

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Fig. 8

Transverse velocity of PS-1, experimental versus single-particle theory values; the variation bars of experimental values fall within the theoretical variation lines shown by solid lines

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Fig. 9

(a) PS-2 densified image and (b) PS-3 densified image. (c) In x direction, locations of pressure nodes are found via these strong intensity plots for PS-2 and (d) intensity plot for PS-3.

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Fig. 10

Transverse velocity of PS-2: experimental versus single-particle theory values

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Fig. 11

Transverse velocity of PS-3: experimental versus single-particle theory values

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Fig. 12

Effect of number of considered particles on the normalized error in achieving horizontal velocity for PS-1, PS-2, and PS-3

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Fig. 13

Acoustic energy density independence with respect to the number of tracked particles for PS-1, PS-2, and PS-3

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