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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Solid Particle Erosion Downstream of an Orifice

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Nemitallah, R. Ben-Mansour, M. A. Habib, W. H. Ahmed, I. H. Toor, Z. M. Gasem

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

H. M. Badr

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: badrhm@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 3, 2014; final manuscript received July 12, 2014; published online September 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.

J. Fluids Eng 137(2), 021302 (Sep 10, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1057; doi: 10.1115/1.4028283 History: Received February 03, 2014; Revised July 12, 2014

The paper deals with solid particle erosion downstream of a sharp-edged orifice commonly found in many chemical processing industries. The orifice is installed in a pipe that is long enough to ensure fully developed turbulent flow in both upstream and downstream directions. Both the k-ε model and the Lagrangian particle-tracking technique were used for predicting solid particle trajectories. Gambit 2.2 was used to construct the computational grid and the commercial Fluent 12.1 code was used to perform the calculations. The available erosion correlations were used for determination of erosion characteristics considering carbon steel and aluminum pipes. The investigation was carried out for a flow restricting orifice of fixed geometry and pipe flow velocities in the range 1–4 m/s using solid particle of diameters 50–500 μm. The results indicated two critical erosion regions downstream of the orifice: the first is in the immediate neighborhood of the orifice plate and the second is in the flow reattachment zone. The results showed also a strong dependence of erosion on both particle size and flow velocity.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Orifice dimensions as per ANSI standard (T = 3 mm, B = 1 mm, d = 25 mm, and D = 50 mm)

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Fig. 2

Variation of the velocity magnitude along the tube centerline using different number of cells for the case of Vi = 1 m/s

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Fig. 3

Comparison between the numerical results using the present erosion model and the experimental data of Blatt et al. [34]

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Fig. 4

Streamline pattern and particle trajectories for the case of Vi = 1 m/s and Dp = 100 μm: (a) velocity stream function and (b) particle trajectories

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Fig. 5

Contours of velocity magnitude and velocity vectors when Vi = 1 m/s: (a) velocity magnitudes and (b) velocity vectors

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Fig. 6

Variation of erosion rate downstream of the orifice plate for carbon steel pipe for the case of Vi = 1 m/s and Dp = 100 μm

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Fig. 7

Variation of turbulent kinetic energy and particle concentration close to the pipe wall downstream of the orifice plate for the case of Vi = 1m/s and Dp = 100 μm

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Fig. 8

Effect of turbulence model on the erosion rate downstream of the orifice for carbon steel pipe material: case of Vi = 1 m/s and Dp = 100 μm

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Fig. 9

Effect of inlet flow velocity on the erosion rate downstream of the orifice for carbon steel pipe material and particle diameter of 100 μm

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Fig. 10

Effect of inlet flow velocity on the erosion rate downstream of the orifice for aluminum pipe material and particle diameter of 100 μm

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Fig. 11

Effect of inlet flow velocity on total and maximum erosion rates upstream and downstream of the orifice plate for carbon steel pipe and Dp = 100 μm

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Fig. 12

Effect of inlet flow velocity on total and maximum erosion rates upstream and downstream of the orifice plate for aluminum pipe and Dp = 100 μm

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Fig. 13

Effect of particle size on the erosion rate downstream of the orifice plate in case of carbon steel pipe and Vi = 1 m/s

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Fig. 14

Effect of particle size on the erosion rate downstream of the orifice plate in case of aluminum pipe and Vi = 1 m/s

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Fig. 15

Effect of particle size on the maximum local and total erosion rates for carbon steel pipe and Vi = 1 m/s

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Fig. 16

Effect of particle size on the maximum local and total erosion rates for aluminum pipe and Vi = 1 m/s

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