0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Numerical Simulation of Stirling Engines Using an Unsteady Quasi-One-Dimensional Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Niklas Andersson

Assistant Professor
Division of Fluid Dynamics,
Department of Applied Mechanics,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Göteborg SE-412 96, Sweden
e-mail: niklas.andersson@chalmers.se

Lars-Erik Eriksson

Professor
Division of Fluid Dynamics,
Department of Applied Mechanics,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Göteborg SE-412 96, Sweden
e-mail: lars-erik.eriksson@chalmers.se

Martin Nilsson

Cleanergy,
Göteborg SE-417 55, Sweden
e-mail: martin.nilsson@cleanergy.com

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 21, 2014; final manuscript received December 12, 2014; published online February 2, 2015. Assoc. Editor: John Abraham.

J. Fluids Eng 137(5), 051104 (May 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1264; doi: 10.1115/1.4029396 History: Received May 21, 2014; Revised December 12, 2014; Online February 02, 2015

An existing computer code for solving the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) flow equations governing unsteady compressible flow in tubes with smoothly varying cross section areas has been adapted to the simulation of the oscillatory flow in Stirling engines for engine design purposes. By utilizing an efficient smoothing algorithm for the area function that preserves the total volume of the tube, it has been possible to achieve a highly accurate and fully conservative numerical scheme. Submodels for wall friction and heat transfer have been added, enabling the simulation of gas heaters, gas coolers, and regenerators. The code has been used for the modeling of an α-type Stirling engine and validated for a range of operating conditions with good results.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Finkelstein, T., and Organ, A. J., 2001, Air Engines—The History, Science, and Reality of the Perfect Engine, ASME Press, New York.
Banduric, R. D., and Chen, N. C. J., 1984, “Nonlinear Analysis of Stirling Engine Thermodynamics,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Technical Report No. ORNL/CON-154.
Organ, A. J., 1997, The Regenerator and the Stirling Engine, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd., London and Bury St Edmunds, UK.
Tew, R. C., Jefferies, K., and Miao, D., 1978, “A Stirling Engine Computer Model for Performance Calculations,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-TM-78884.
Tew, R. C., 1983, “Computer Program for Stirling Engine Performance Calculations,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-M-82960.
Geng, S. M., and Tew, R. C., 1992, “Comparison of GLIMPS and HFAST Stirling Engine Code Predictions With Experimental Data,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-TM-105549.
Mahkamov, K., 2006, “An Axisymmetric Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach to the Analysis of the Working Process of a Solar Stirling Engine,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 128(1), pp. 45–53. [CrossRef]
Chen, W.-L., Wong, K.-L., and Chang, Y.-F., 2014, “A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Working Cycle of a Low-Temperature-Differential γ-Type Stirling Engine,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 75, pp. 145–155. [CrossRef]
Salazar, J. L., and Chen, W.-L., 2014, “A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Working Cycle of a β-Type Stirling Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 88, pp. 177–188. [CrossRef]
Costa, S.-C., Tutar, M., Berreno, I., Esnaola, J.-A., Barruita, H., García, D., González, M.-A., and Prieto, J.-I., 2014, “Experimental and Numerical Flow Investigation of Stirling Engine Regenerator,” Energy, 72, pp. 800–812. [CrossRef]
Mahkamov, K., 2006, “Design Improvements to a Biomass Stirling Engine Using Mathematical Analysis and 3D CFD Modeling,” ASME J. Energy Res. Technol., 128(3), pp. 203–215. [CrossRef]
Campbell, B. T., and Davis, R. L., 2009, “Quasi-1D Unsteady Conjugate Module for Rocket Engine and Propulsion System Simulations,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 131(2), p. 021203. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, N. T., 2009, “One-Dimensional Unsteady Periodic Flow Model With Boundary Conditions Constrained by Differential Equations,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 131(6), p. 061201. [CrossRef]
Nilsson, M., Wåhlen, P., and Mattsson, A., 2014, “Performance Testing of a Stirling Engine, With Implementation of High-Speed Pressure Measurements in the Working Gas Channel,” 16th International Stirling Engine Conference, Bilbao, Spain, Sept. 24–26.
Eriksson, L.-E., 1995, “Development and Validation of Highly Modular Flow Solver Versions in G2DFLOW and G3DFLOW,” Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden, Technical Report No. 9970-1162.
Andersson, N., Eriksson, L.-E., and Davidson, L., 2005, “Large-Eddy Simulation of Subsonic Turbulent Jets and Their Radiated Sound,” AIAA J., 43(9), pp. 1899–1912. [CrossRef]
Wollblad, C., Eriksson, L.-E., and Davidson, L., 2006, “Large Eddy Simulation of Transonic Flow With Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction,” AIAA J., 44(10), pp. 2340–2353. [CrossRef]
Andersson, N., and Eriksson, L.-E., 2008, “Prediction of Flowfield and Acoustic Signature of a Coaxial Jet Using RANS-Based Methods and Large-Eddy Simulation,” Int. J. Aeroacoust., 7(1), pp. 23–40. [CrossRef]
Burak, M. O., Billson, M., Eriksson, L.-E., and Baralon, S., 2009, “Validation of a Time- and Frequency-Domain Grazing Flow Acoustic Liner Model,” AIAA J., 47(8), pp. 1841–1848. [CrossRef]
Burak, M. O., Eriksson, L.-E., Munday, D., Gutmark, E., and Prisell, E., 2012, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Supersonic Convergent-Divergent Nozzle,” AIAA J., 50(7), pp. 1462–1475. [CrossRef]
Costa, S.-C., Berreno, I., Tutar, M., Esnaola, J.-A., and Barruita, H., 2015, “The Thermal Non-Equilibrium Porous Media Modeling for CFD Study of Woven Wire Matrix of a Stirling Regenerator,” Energy Convers. Manage., 89, pp. 473–483. [CrossRef]
Wakeland, R. S., and Keolian, R. M., 2003, “Measurements of Resistance of Individual Square-Mesh Screens to Oscillating Flow at Low and Intermediate Reynolds Numbers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 125(5), pp. 851–862. [CrossRef]
Sodré, J. R., and Parise, J. A. R., 1997, “Friction Factor Determination for Flow Through Wire-Mesh Woven-Screen Matrices,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119(4), pp. 847–851. [CrossRef]
Gedeon, D., and Wood, J. G., 1996, “Oscillating-Flow Regenerator Test Rig: Hardware and Theory With Derived Correlations for Screens and Felts,” Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Contractor Report No. 198442.
Kim, S.-M., and Ghiaasiaan, S. M., 2009, “Numerical Modeling of Laminar Pulsating Flow in Porous Media,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 131(4), p. 041203. [CrossRef]
Kays, W. M., and London, A. L., 1984, Compact Heat Exchangers, 3rd ed., Krieger, Malabar, FL.
Eriksson, L.-E., 2013, “Numerical Simulation of Stirling Engines,” Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Gothenburg, Sweden, Technical Report No. 2013:10.
García, D., González, M.-A., Prieto, J.-I., Herrero, S., López, S., Mesenero, I., and Villasante, C., 2014, “Characterization of the Power and Efficiency of Stirling Engine Subsystems,” Appl. Energy, 121, pp. 51–63. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic overview of the α-type Stirling engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Tube system fluid velocity distribution for various crank angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tube system fluid temperature distribution for various crank angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Expansion cylinder pressure (normalized) versus crank angle for operating point P1.3 (Table 1). The dashed line represents measured data and the dashed-dotted lines represent a ±1% deviation from the measured levels. The solid line represents data obtained from SQUID simulation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cylinder pressure–volume diagram for operating point P1.3 (Table 1). Solid lines represent data from SQUID and dashed lines represent measured data.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Expansion cylinder pressure (normalized) versus crank angle for operating point P2.2 (Table 1). The dashed line represents measured data and the dashed-dotted lines represent a ±1% deviation from the measured levels. The solid line represents data obtained from SQUID simulation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Cylinder pressure–volume diagram for operating point P2.2 (Table 1). Solid lines represent data from SQUID and dashed lines represent measured data.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In