0
Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Concurrent Droplet Coalescence and Solidification on Surfaces With Various Wettabilities

[+] Author and Article Information
Sara Moghtadernejad

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: sara.moghtadernejad@gmail.com

Mehdi Jadidi

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: m_jadi@encs.concordia.ca

Moussa Tembely

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: moussa.tembely@concordia.ca

Nabil Esmail

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: esmail@encs.concordia.ca

Ali Dolatabadi

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: ali.dolatabadi@concordia.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 8, 2014; final manuscript received January 22, 2015; published online March 19, 2015. Assoc. Editor: John Abraham.

J. Fluids Eng 137(7), 071302 (Jul 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1429; doi: 10.1115/1.4029672 History: Received August 08, 2014; Revised January 22, 2015; Online March 19, 2015

An experimental study is performed to analyze the shear driven droplet shedding on cold substrates with different airflow speeds typical of those in the flight conditions. Understanding the mechanism of simultaneous droplet shedding, coalescence, and solidification is crucial to devise solutions for mitigating aircraft in-flight icing. To mimic this scenario, the experimental setup is designed to generate shear flow as high as 90 m/s. The droplet shedding at high-speed is investigated on a cold surface (0 and −5 °C) of different wettabilities ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Result analyses indicate that on a hydrophilic substrate, the droplets form a rivulet, which then freezes on the cold plate. In contrast, on the superhydrophobic surface, there is no rivulet formation. Instead, droplets roll over the substrate and detach from it under the effect of high shear flow.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Milne, A. J. B., and Amirfazli, A., 2009, “Drop Shedding by Shear Flow for Hydrophilic to Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 25(24), pp. 14155–14164. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
White, E. B., and Schmucker, J. A. J., 2008, “A Runback Criterion for Water Drops in a Turbulent Accelerated Boundary Layer,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(6), p. 061302. [CrossRef]
Rein, M., 1993, “Phenomena of Liquid Drop Impact on Solid and Liquid Surfaces,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 12(2), pp. 61–93. [CrossRef]
Yarin, A. L., 2006, “Drop Impact Dynamics: Splashing, Spreading, Receding, Bouncing…,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 38, pp. 159–192. [CrossRef]
Li, R., Ashgriz, N., and Chandra, S., 2010, “Maximum Spread of Droplet on Solid Surface: Low Reynolds and Weber Numbers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132(6), p. 061302. [CrossRef]
Capizzano, F., and Luliano, E., 2014, “A Eulerian Method for Water Droplet Impingement by Means of an Immersed Boundary Technique,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(4), p. 040906. [CrossRef]
Wan, Y. P., Zhang, H., Jiang, X. Y., Sampath, S., and Prasad, V., 2000, “Role of Solidification, Substrate Temperature and Reynolds Number on Droplet Spreading in Thermal Spray Deposition: Measurements and Modeling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(2), pp. 382–389. [CrossRef]
Carroll, B., and Hidrovo, C., 2013, “Droplet Detachment Mechanism in a High-Speed Gaseous Micro Flow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(7), p. 071206. [CrossRef]
Farhangi, M., Graham, P. J., Choudhury, N. R., and Dolatabadi, A., 2012, “Induced Detachment of Coalescing Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 28(2), pp. 1290–1303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Graham, P. J., Farhangi, M., and Dolatabadi, A., 2012, “Dynamics of Droplet Coalescence in Response to Increasing Hydrophobicity,” Phys. Fluids, 24(11), p. 112105. [CrossRef]
Holl, M., Patek, Z., and Smrcek, L., 2000, “Wind Tunnel Testing of Performance Degradation of Ice Contaminated Airfoils,” 22nd International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences, Harrogate, UK, Aug. 27–Sept. 1, Paper No. 3.1.1.
Alizadeh, A., Yamada, M., Li, R., Shang, W., Otta, S., Zhong, S., Ge, L., Dhinojwala, A., Conway, K. R., Bahadur, V., Vinciquerra, A. J., Stephens, B., and Blohm, M. L., 2012, “Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces,” Langmuir, 28(6), pp. 3180–3186. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, D., and Chen, Z., 2014, “Experimental Study on Instantaneously Shedding Frozen Water Droplets From Cold Vertical Surface by Ultrasonic Vibration,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 53, pp. 17–25. [CrossRef]
McAlister, G., Ettema, R., and Marshall, J. S., 2004, “Wind-Driven Rivulet Breakoff and Droplet Flows in Microgravity and Terrestrial Gravity Conditions,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(2), pp. 257–266. [CrossRef]
Antonini, C., Innocenti, M., Horn, T., Marengo, M., and Amirfazli, A., 2011, “Understanding the Effect of Superhydrophobic Coatings on Energy Reduction in Anti-Icing System,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 67(1–2), pp. 58–67. [CrossRef]
Boinovich, L., Emelyanenko, A. M., Korolev, V. V., and Pashinin, S. A., 2014, “Effect of Wettability on Sessile Drop Freezing: When Superhydrophobicity Stimulates an Extreme Freezing Delay,” Langmuir, 30(6), pp. 1659–1668. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, T. J., Kanapuram, R., Chhabra, A., and Hidrovo, C., 2012, “Thermo-Wetting and Friction Reduction Characterization of Microtextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(11), p. 114501. [CrossRef]
Ma, M., and Hill, R. M., 2006, “Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 11(4), pp. 193–202. [CrossRef]
Choi, C. H., Ulmanella, U., Kim, J., Ho, C. M., and Kim, C. J., 2006, “Effective Slip and Friction Reduction in Nanograted Superhydrophobic Microchannels,” Phys. Fluid, 18(8), p. 087105. [CrossRef]
Ou, J., Perot, B., and Rothstein, J. P., 2004, “Laminar Drag Reduction in Microchannels Using Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. Fluid., 16(12), pp. 4635–4643. [CrossRef]
Furstner, R., Barthlott, W., Neinhuis, C., and Walzel, P., 2005, “Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 21(3), pp. 956–961. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Meuler, A. J., Smith, J. D., Varanasi, K. K., Mabry, J. M., McKinley, G. H., and Cohen, R. E., 2010, “Relationships Between Water Wettability and Ice Adhesion,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2(11), pp. 3100–3110. [CrossRef]
Kulinich, S., and Farzaneh, M., 2009, “Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 225(18), pp. 8153–8157. [CrossRef]
Li, X., Reinhoudt, D., and Crego-Calama, M., 2007, “What Do We Need for a Superhydrophobic Surface? A Review on the Recent Progress in the Preparation of Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Chem. Soc. Rev., 36(8), pp. 1350–1368. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Genzer, J., and Efimenko, K., 2006, “Recent Developments in Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Their Relevance to Marine Fouling: A Review,” Biofouling, 22(5), pp. 339–360. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Barthlott, W., and Neinhuis, C., 1997, “Purity of the Sacred Lotus, or Escape From Contamination in Biological Surfaces,” Planta, 202(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Nychka, J. A., and Gentleman, M. M., 2010, “Implications of Wettability in Biological Materials Science,” JOM, 62(7), pp. 39–48. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X., Shi, F., Niu, J., Jiang, Y., and Wang, Z., 2008, “Superhydrophobic Surfaces: From Structural Control to Functional Application,” J. Mater. Chem., 18(6), pp. 621–633. [CrossRef]
Bhushan, B., and Jung, Y. C., 2006, “Micro and Nanoscale Characterization of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Leaf Surfaces,” Nanotechnology, 17(11), pp. 2758–2772. [CrossRef]
Moghtadernejad, S., Mohammadi, M., Jadidi, M., Tembely, M., and Dolatabadi, A., 2013, “Shear Driven Droplet Shedding on Surfaces With Various Wettabilities,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp., 6(2), pp. 459–464.
Blasius, H., 1908, “Grenzschichten in Flüssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung,” Z. Math. Phys., 56, pp. 1–37 (English translation).
Abramo, M. D., Magelhaes, P. J., and Ram, J. S., 2004, “Image Processing With ImageJ,” Biophotonics Int., 11(7), pp. 36–42.
Enríquez, O. R., Marín, A. G., Winkels, K. G., and Snoeijer, J. H., 2012, “Freezing Singularities in Water Drops,” Phys. Fluid, 24(9), p. 091102. [CrossRef]
Anderson, D. M., Worster, M. G., and Davis, S. H., 1996, “The Case for a Dynamic Contact Angle in Containerless Solidification,” J. Cryst. Growth, 163(3), pp. 329–338. [CrossRef]
Lord Rayleigh, 1879, “On the Capillary Phenomena of Jets,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 29(196–199), pp. 71–97. [CrossRef]
Antonini, C., Amirfazli, A., and Marengo, M., 2012, “Drop Impact and Wettability: From Hydrophilic to Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. Fluid, 24(10), p. 102104. [CrossRef]
Villermaux, E., and Bossa, B., 2011, “Drop Fragmentation on Impact,” J. Fluid Mech., 668, pp. 412–435. [CrossRef]
Richard, D., Clanet, C., and Quere, D., 2002, “Contact Time of a Bouncing Drop,” Nature, 417(6891), p. 811. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yeong, Y. H., Mudafort, R., Steele, A., Bayer, I., and Loth, E., 2012, “Water Droplet Impact Dynamics at Icing Conditions With and Without Superhydrophobicity,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-3134. [CrossRef]
Reyssat, M., Richard, D., Clanet, Ch., and Quere, D., 2010, “Dynamical Superhydrophobicity,” Faraday Discuss., 146, pp. 19–33. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jung, S., Tiwari, K. M., Doan, V. N., and Poulikakos, D., 2012, “Mechanism of Supercooled Droplet Freezing on Surfaces,” Nat. Commun., 3, p. 615. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jung, S., Tiwari, K. M., and Poulikakos, D., 2012, “Frost Halos From Supercooled Water Droplets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 109(40), pp. 16073–16078. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Criscione, A., Kintea, D., Roisman, I., Jakirlic, S., and Tropea, C., 2013, “A New Approach for Water Crystallization in the Kinetics-Limited Growth Region,” 8th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Jeju, Korea, May 26–31.
Criscione, A., Kintea, D., Tukovic, Z., Jakirlic, S., Roisman, I., and Tropea, C., 2013, “Crystallization of Supercooled Water: A Level-Set-Based Modeling of the Dendrite Tip Velocity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 66, pp. 830–837. [CrossRef]
Ivantsov, G., 1947, “Temperature Field Around Spherical, Cylindrical, and Needle-Shaped Crystals Which Grow in Supercooled Melt,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 558, pp. 567–569.
Mullins, W. W., and Sekerta, R. F., 1964, “The Stability of a Planar Interface During Solidification of a Dilute Binary Alloy,” J. Appl. Phys., 35(2), pp. 444–451. [CrossRef]
Shibkov, A. A., Zheltov, M. A., Korolev, A. A., Kazakov, A. A., and Leonov, A. A., 2005, “Crossover From Diffusion-Limited to Kinetics-Limited Growth of Ice Crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth, 285(1–2), pp. 215–227. [CrossRef]
Farhadi, S., Farzaneh, M., and Kulinich, S. A., 2011, “Anti-Icing Performance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 257(14), pp. 6264–6269. [CrossRef]
Wier, K. A., and McCarthy, T. J., 2006, “Condensation on Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces and Its Effect on Droplet Mobility: Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces Are Not Always Water Repellant,” Langmuir, 22(6), pp. 2433–2436. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mockenhaupt, B., Ensikat, H., Spaeth, M., and Barthlott, W., 2008, “Superhydrophobicity of Biological and Technical Surfaces Under Moisture Condensation: Stability in Relation to Surface Structure,” Langmuir, 24(23), pp. 13591–13597. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nareh, R. D., and Beysens, D. A., 2007, “Growth Dynamics of Water Drops on a Square-Pattern Rough Hydrophobic Surface,” Langmuir, 23(12), pp. 6486–6489. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Xio, X., Cheng, Y. T., Sheldon, B. W., and Rankin, J., 2008, “Condensed Water on Superhydrophobic Carbon Films,” J. Mater. Res., 23(8), pp. 2174–2178. [CrossRef]
Karmouch, R., and Ross, G. G., 2010, “Experimental Study on the Evolution of Contact Angles With Temperature Near the Freezing Point,” J. Phys. Chem. C., 114(9), pp. 4063–4066. [CrossRef]
Kulinich, S. A., Farhadi, S., Nose, K., and Du, X. W., 2010, “Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Are They Really Ice-Repellent?,” Langmuir, 27(1), pp. 25–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Varanasi, K., Deng, T., Smith, J. D., Hsu, M., and Bhate, N., 2010, “Frost Formation and Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 97(23), p. 234102. [CrossRef]
Kulinich, S. A., and Farzaneh, M., 2011, “On Ice-Releasing Properties of Rough Hydrophobic Coatings,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 65(1), pp. 60–64. [CrossRef]
Menini, R., Ghalmi, Z., and Farzaneh, M., 2011, “Highly Resistant Icephobic Coatings on Aluminum Alloys,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 65(1), pp. 65–69. [CrossRef]
Ensikat, H. J., Schulte, A. J., Koch, K., and Barthlott, W., 2009, “Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Visualization of the Contact Area by Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Langmuir, 25(22), pp. 13077–13083. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

SEM image of the superhydrophobic [9] and aluminum substrates with 2500× and 5000× magnification, respectively. The specified area at the top right corner of the superhydrophobic substrate has the magnification of 15,000×.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of Reff and Z of a droplet placed on: (a) aluminum and (b) superhydrophobic substrate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the two droplets position on the substrate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Single droplet shedding sequences on aluminum substrate; airflow direction is from left to right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized wetting length versus dimensionless time on aluminum substrate at different surface temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Two droplets shedding sequences on aluminum substrate; airflow direction is from left to right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variations of the normalized wetting length versus time on aluminum substrate for: (a) first droplet and (b) coalesced droplet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Single droplet shedding sequences on superhydrophobic substrate; airflow direction is from left to right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Normalized wetting length versus Dimensionless time on superhydrophobic substrate at different surface temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Dimensionless detachment time versus Reynolds number on superhydrophobic substrate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Two droplets shedding sequences on superhydrophobic substrate; airflow direction is from left to right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Variations of the normalized wetting length versus time on superhydrophobic substrate for (a) first droplet and (b) coalesced droplet

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In