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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

An Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Propylene Glycol/Water Based Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations

[+] Author and Article Information
Ravikanth S. Vajjha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905

Debendra K. Das

Professor
Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905
e-mail: dkdas@alaska.edu

Godwin A. Chukwu

Emeritus Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 25, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online March 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ali Beskok.

J. Fluids Eng 137(8), 081201 (Aug 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1228; doi: 10.1115/1.4029928 History: Received April 25, 2014; Revised February 17, 2015; Online March 27, 2015

Measurements have been carried out for determining the viscosity of several nanofluids, in which different nanoparticles were dispersed in a base fluid of 60% propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water by mass. The nanoparticles were aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) with different average particle diameters. Measurements were conducted for particle volume concentrations of up to 6% and over a temperature range of 243 K–363 K. All the nanofluids exhibited a Bingham plastic behavior at lower temperatures of 243 K–273 K and a Newtonian behavior in the temperature range of 273 K–363 K. Comparisons of the experimental data with several existing models show that they do not exhibit good agreement. Therefore, a new model has been developed for the viscosity of nanofluids as a function of temperature, particle volume concentration, particle diameter, the properties of nanoparticles, and those of the base fluid. Measurements were also conducted for single walled, bamboolike structured, and hollow structured multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in a base fluid of 20% PG and 80% water by mass. Measurements of these carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanofluids were conducted for a particle volume concentration of 0.229% and over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K, which exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior. The effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of CNT nanofluids was investigated. From the experimental data of CNT nanofluids, a new correlation was developed which relates the viscosity to temperature and the Péclet number.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of: (a) Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 20 nm and (b) BWCNT taken before conducting the rheological measurements

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup for viscosity measurement of nanofluids

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Fig. 3

Benchmark test cases for the viscosity of 60:40 PG/W and DI water

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Fig. 4

Viscosity variation with shear strain rate of Al2O3 nanofluid of 4% particle volume concentration for varying temperatures from 243 K (−30 °C) to 363 K (90 °C)

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Fig. 5

Shear stress versus shear strain rate for a 4% particle volume concentration of Al2O3 nanofluid at 243 K (−30 °C) and 293 K (20 °C)

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Fig. 6

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 53 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 7

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 20 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 8

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of CuO nanoparticles of APS 29 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 9

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles of APS 30 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 10

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles of APS 10±5 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 11

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles of APS 77 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 12

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles of APS 50 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 13

Effect of nanoparticle size on viscosity for varying temperatures at two different particle sizes and volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 14

Effect of nanoparticle diameter on viscosity for varying temperatures at two different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanofluid in 60:40 PG/W

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Fig. 15

Comparison between several theoretical models and experimental data on viscosity for Al2O3–PG/W nanofluids as a function of particle volumetric concentration at a room temperature of 293 K

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Fig. 16

Comparison of the viscosity values calculated from the present correlation, Eq. (4) with the values obtained from the experiments

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Fig. 17

Viscosity variation with shear strain rate over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K for a 0.229% volume concentration of: (a) SWCNT, (b) BWCNT, and (c) MWCNT

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Fig. 18

Shear stress versus shear strain rate at 273 K and 313 K for a 0.229% particle volume concentration of: (a) SWCNT, (b) BWCNT, and (c) MWCNT after 90 mins of ultrasonication

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Fig. 19

Effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of BWCNT

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Fig. 20

Effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of MWCNT

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Fig. 21

Comparison of the viscosity values calculated from the present correlation, Eq. (7) with the values obtained from the experiments for the BWCNT at different shear rates

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