0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

An Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Propylene Glycol/Water Based Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations

[+] Author and Article Information
Ravikanth S. Vajjha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905

Debendra K. Das

Professor
Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905
e-mail: dkdas@alaska.edu

Godwin A. Chukwu

Emeritus Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 25, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online March 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ali Beskok.

J. Fluids Eng 137(8), 081201 (Aug 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1228; doi: 10.1115/1.4029928 History: Received April 25, 2014; Revised February 17, 2015; Online March 27, 2015

Measurements have been carried out for determining the viscosity of several nanofluids, in which different nanoparticles were dispersed in a base fluid of 60% propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water by mass. The nanoparticles were aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) with different average particle diameters. Measurements were conducted for particle volume concentrations of up to 6% and over a temperature range of 243 K–363 K. All the nanofluids exhibited a Bingham plastic behavior at lower temperatures of 243 K–273 K and a Newtonian behavior in the temperature range of 273 K–363 K. Comparisons of the experimental data with several existing models show that they do not exhibit good agreement. Therefore, a new model has been developed for the viscosity of nanofluids as a function of temperature, particle volume concentration, particle diameter, the properties of nanoparticles, and those of the base fluid. Measurements were also conducted for single walled, bamboolike structured, and hollow structured multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in a base fluid of 20% PG and 80% water by mass. Measurements of these carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanofluids were conducted for a particle volume concentration of 0.229% and over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K, which exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior. The effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of CNT nanofluids was investigated. From the experimental data of CNT nanofluids, a new correlation was developed which relates the viscosity to temperature and the Péclet number.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Maxwell, J. C., 1904, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Dover Publications, New York.
Choi, S. U. S., 1995, “Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, Vol. 231, D. A.Siginer, and H. P.Wang, eds., American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp. 99–105.
Das, S. K., Putra, N., Thiesen, P., and Roetzel, W., 2003, “Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(4), pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Koo, J., and Kleinstreuer, C., 2005, “A New Thermal Conductivity Model for Nanofluids,” J. Nanopart. Res., 6(6), pp. 577–588. [CrossRef]
Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Kulkarni, D. P., 2010, “Development of New Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer and Friction Factor in Turbulent Regime for Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(21–22), pp. 4607–4618. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R., Bhattacharya, P., and Phelan, P. E., 2006, “Brownian-Motion-Based Convective-Conductive Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(6), p. 588. [CrossRef]
Einstein, A., 1906, “A New Determination of the Molecular Dimensions,” Ann. Phys., 19(2), pp. 289–306. [CrossRef]
de Bruijn, H., 1942, “The Viscosity of Suspensions of Spherical Particles. (The Fundamental ɳ-c and ϕ-c Relations),” Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 61(12), pp. 863–874. [CrossRef]
Vand, V., 1948, “Viscosity of Solutions and Suspensions. I. Theory,” J. Chem. Phys., 52(2), pp. 277–299. [CrossRef]
Mooney, M., 1951, “The Viscosity of a Concentrated Suspension of Spherical Particles,” J. Colloid Sci., 6(2), pp. 162–170. [CrossRef]
Brinkman, H. C., 1952, “The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solutions,” J. Chem. Phys., 20(4), pp. 571–581. [CrossRef]
Krieger, I. M., and Dougherty, T. J., 1959, “A Mechanism for Non-Newtonian Flow in Suspensions of Rigid Spheres,” J. Rheol., 3(1), pp. 137–152. [CrossRef]
Frankel, N. A., and Acrivos, A., 1967, “On the Viscosity of a Concentrated Suspension of Solid Spheres,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 22(6), pp. 847–853. [CrossRef]
Batchelor, G. K., 1977, “The Effect of Brownian Motion on the Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Spherical Particles,” J. Fluid Mech., 83(1), pp. 97–117. [CrossRef]
Graham, A., 1981, “On the Viscosity of Suspensions of Solid Spheres,” Appl. Sci. Res., 37(3–4), pp. 275–286. [CrossRef]
Leighton, D., and Acrivos, A., 1987, “The Shear-Induced Migration of Particles in Concentrated Suspensions,” J. Fluid Mech., 181, pp. 415–439. [CrossRef]
Thomas, C. U., and Muthukumar, M., 1991, “Three-Body Hydrodynamic Effects on Viscosity of Suspensions of Spheres,” J. Chem. Phys., 94(7), pp. 5180–5189. [CrossRef]
Masuda, H., Ebata, A., Teramae, K., and Hishinuma, N., 1993, “Alteration of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Liquid by Dispersing Ultra-Fine Particles (Dispersion of Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 Ultra-Fine Particles),” Netsu Bussei, 7(4), pp. 227–233. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, Y. I., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11(2), pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Tseng, W. J., and Lin, K. C., 2003, “Rheology and Colloidal Structure of Aqueous TiO2 Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: A, 355(1–2), pp. 186–192. [CrossRef]
Maïga, S. E. B., Palm, S. J., Nguyen, C. T., Roy, G., and Galanis, N., 2005, “Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Nanofluids in Forced Convection Flows,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 26(4), pp. 530–546. [CrossRef]
Buongiorno, J., 2006, “Convective Transport in Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(3), pp. 240–250. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R., Song, D., Wang, J., and Phelan, P. E., 2006, “Measurements of Nanofluid Viscosity and Its Implications for Thermal Applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89(13), p. 3 [CrossRef].
Kulkarni, D. P., Das, D. K., and Chukwu, G. A., 2006, “Temperature Dependent Rheological Property of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Suspension (Nanofluid),” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 6(4), pp. 1150–1154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kulkarni, D. P., Das, D. K., and Patil, S. L., 2007, “Effect of Temperature on Rheological Properties of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed in Propylene Glycol and Water Mixture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 7(7), pp. 2318–2322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Namburu, P. K., Kulkarni, D. P., Dandekar, A., and Das, D. K., 2007, “Experimental Investigation of Viscosity and Specific Heat of Silicon Dioxide Nanofluids,” Micro Nano Lett., 2(3), pp. 67–71. [CrossRef]
Namburu, P. K., Kulkarni, D. P., Misra, D., and Das, D. K., 2007, “Viscosity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ethylene Glycol and Water Mixture,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(2), pp. 397–402. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, C. T., Desgranges, F., Roy, G., Galanis, N., Maré, T., Boucher, S., and Angue Mintsa, H., 2007, “Temperature and Particle-Size Dependent Viscosity Data for Water-Based Nanofluids—Hysteresis Phenomenon,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 28(6), pp. 1492–1506. [CrossRef]
Avsec, J., and Oblak, M., 2007, “The Calculation of Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity and Thermodynamic Properties for Nanofluids on the Basis of Statistical Nanomechanics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(21–22), pp. 4331–4341. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Ding, Y., He, Y., and Tan, C., 2007, “Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene Glycol Based Titania Nanofluids,” Chem. Phys. Lett., 444(4–6), pp. 333–337. [CrossRef]
Williams, W., Buongiorno, J., and Hu, L. W., 2008, “Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss of Alumina/Water and Zirconia/Water Nanoparticle Colloids (Nanofluids) in Horizontal Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130(4), p. 042412. [CrossRef]
Namburu, P. K., Das, D. K., Tanguturi, K. A., and Vajjha, R. S., 2009, “Numerical Study of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids Considering Variable Properties,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 48(2), pp. 290–302. [CrossRef]
Sahoo, B. C., Vajjha, R. S., Ganguli, R., Chukwu, G. A., and Das, D. K., 2009, “Determination of Rheological Behavior of Aluminum Oxide Nanofluid and Development of New Viscosity Correlations,” Pet. Sci. Technol., 27(15), pp. 1757–1770. [CrossRef]
Masoumi, N., Sohrabi, N., and Behzadmehr, A., 2009, “A New Model for Calculating the Effective Viscosity of Nanofluids,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 42(5), p. 055501. [CrossRef]
Kole, M., and Dey, T. K., 2010, “Viscosity of Alumina Nanoparticles Dispersed in Car Engine Coolant,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(6), pp. 677–683. [CrossRef]
Corcione, M., 2011, “Rayleigh-Bénard Convection Heat Transfer in Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32(1), pp. 65–77. [CrossRef]
Kole, M., and Dey, T. K., 2011, “Effect of Aggregation on the Viscosity of Copper Oxide–Gear Oil Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(9), pp. 1741–1747. [CrossRef]
Khanafer, K., and Vafai, K., 2011, “A Critical Synthesis of Thermophysical Characteristics of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(19–20), pp. 4410–4428. [CrossRef]
Priya, K. R., Suganthi, K. S., and Rajan, K. S., 2012, “Transport Properties of Ultra-Low Concentration CuO–Water Nanofluids Containing Non-Spherical Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(17–18), pp. 4734–4743. [CrossRef]
Andrade, E. N. d. C., 1930, “The Viscosity of Liquids,” Nature, 125, pp. 309–310. [CrossRef]
American Society of Heating, R., and Engineers, A.-C., 2009, ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.
AlfaAesar, 2013, “Alfa Aesar,” www.alfa.com
Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, I., 2013, “Nanoscale Products,” http://www.nanoamor.com/
NanoLab, 2013, “NanoLab,” http://www.nano-lab.com/
White, F. M., 2005, Viscous Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Kestin, J., Sokolov, M., and Wakeham, A. W., 1978, “Viscosity of Liquid Water in the Range −8 °C to 150 °C,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 7(3), pp. 941–948. [CrossRef]
Wagner, N. J., and Brady, J. F., 2009, “Shear Thickening in Colloidal Dispersions,” Phys. Today, 62(10), pp. 27–32. [CrossRef]
Cheremisinoff, N. P., 1988, Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics: Rheology and Non-Newtonian flows, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX.
Corcione, M., 2012, “Natural Convection in Nanofluids,” Nanoparticle Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, W. J.Minkowycz, E. M.Sparrow, and J. P.Abraham, eds., CRC Press, New York, pp. 277–318.
Minitab 16 Statistical Software, 2013, Computer Software, Minitab, Inc., State College, PA, www.minitab.com.
Kinloch, I. A., Roberts, S. A., and Windle, A. H., 2002, “A Rheological Study of Concentrated Aqueous Nanotube Dispersions,” Polymer, 43(26), pp. 7483–7491. [CrossRef]
Ding, Y., Alias, H., Wen, D., and Williams, R. A., 2006, “Heat Transfer of Aqueous Suspensions of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT Nanofluids),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(1–2), pp. 240–250. [CrossRef]
Garg, P., Alvarado, J. L., Marsh, C., Carlson, T. A., Kessler, D. A., and Annamalai, K., 2009, “An Experimental Study on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Viscosity and Heat Transfer Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Based Aqueous Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(21–22), pp. 5090–5101. [CrossRef]
Aladag, B., Halelfadl, S., Doner, N., Maré, T., Duret, S., and Estellé, P., 2012, “Experimental Investigations of the Viscosity of Nanofluids at Low Temperatures,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 876–880. [CrossRef]
Halelfadl, S., Estellé, P., Aladag, B., Doner, N., and Maré, T., 2013, “Viscosity of Carbon Nanotubes Water-Based Nanofluids: Influence of Concentration and Temperature,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 71, pp. 111–117. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y., Grulke, E. A., Zhang, Z. G., and Wu, G., 2006, “Thermal and Rheological Properties of Carbon Nanotube-in-Oil Dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys., 99(11), p. 8 [CrossRef].
Stickel, J. J., and Powell, R. L., 2005, “Fluid Mechanics and Rheology of Dense Suspensions,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37(1), pp. 129–149. [CrossRef]
Mueller, S., Llewellin, E. W., and Mader, H. M., 2010, “The Rheology of Suspensions of Solid Particles,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 466(2176), pp. 1201–1228. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of: (a) Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 20 nm and (b) BWCNT taken before conducting the rheological measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for viscosity measurement of nanofluids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Benchmark test cases for the viscosity of 60:40 PG/W and DI water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Viscosity variation with shear strain rate of Al2O3 nanofluid of 4% particle volume concentration for varying temperatures from 243 K (−30 °C) to 363 K (90 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Shear stress versus shear strain rate for a 4% particle volume concentration of Al2O3 nanofluid at 243 K (−30 °C) and 293 K (20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 53 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles of APS 20 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of CuO nanoparticles of APS 29 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles of APS 30 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles of APS 10±5 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles of APS 77 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Viscosity variation with temperature at different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles of APS 50 nm suspended in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of nanoparticle size on viscosity for varying temperatures at two different particle sizes and volumetric concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effect of nanoparticle diameter on viscosity for varying temperatures at two different particle volumetric concentrations of ZnO nanofluid in 60:40 PG/W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison between several theoretical models and experimental data on viscosity for Al2O3–PG/W nanofluids as a function of particle volumetric concentration at a room temperature of 293 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of the viscosity values calculated from the present correlation, Eq. (4) with the values obtained from the experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Viscosity variation with shear strain rate over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K for a 0.229% volume concentration of: (a) SWCNT, (b) BWCNT, and (c) MWCNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Shear stress versus shear strain rate at 273 K and 313 K for a 0.229% particle volume concentration of: (a) SWCNT, (b) BWCNT, and (c) MWCNT after 90 mins of ultrasonication

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of BWCNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of MWCNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Comparison of the viscosity values calculated from the present correlation, Eq. (7) with the values obtained from the experiments for the BWCNT at different shear rates

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In