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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Skin Friction Fields and Surface Dye Patterns on Delta Wings in Water Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Tianshu Liu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
G-217, Parkview Campus,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
e-mail: tianshu.liu@wmich.edu

M. H. M. Makhmalbaf, RS Vewen Ramasamy, S. Kode, P. Merati

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
G-217, Parkview Campus,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 22, 2014; final manuscript received March 3, 2015; published online March 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.

J. Fluids Eng 137(7), 071202 (Jul 01, 2015) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1272; doi: 10.1115/1.4030041 History: Received May 22, 2014; Revised March 03, 2015; Online March 27, 2015

This paper discusses the relationship between skin friction fields and surface dye patterns in surface luminescent dye visualizations in water flows, providing a theoretical foundation for extraction of high-resolution skin friction fields. The limiting form of the mass diffusion equation at a wall is recast as an optical flow equation connecting skin friction with the luminescent dye intensity. Snapshot solutions are obtained from a time sequence of luminescent intensity images by solving the optical flow equation via the variational method, and then a normalized skin friction field is reconstructed by averaging the snapshot solutions. An error analysis is given to identify the major error sources and the limitations of the technique. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique, surface luminescent dye visualizations on a 65 deg delta wing and a 76/40 deg double-delta wing are conducted in a water tunnel. The extracted skin friction topology on the delta wings and the velocity fields obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) are discussed.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

The domain-averaged skin friction magnitude and image intensity on a 65 deg delta wing as a function of time

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Fig. 2

The normalized skin friction magnitude distributions on a 65 deg delta wing at different times at: (a) x/c = 0.53 and (b) x/c = 0.87

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup for mass transfer visualization by using a luminescent dye coating on a model surface in a water tunnel: (a) schematic view from a downstream location and (b) photo of the setup

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Fig. 4

(a) Normalized luminescent intensity image, (b) skin friction lines, and (c) skin friction vectors and normalized magnitude field on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

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Fig. 5

Comparison between: (a) skin friction lines obtained by using the GLOF method in the wind tunnel and (b) near-wall streamlines from PIV in the water tunnel on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

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Fig. 6

Normalized luminescent intensity images on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 7

Skin friction lines on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 8

Skin friction vectors and normalize magnitude fields on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 9

Normalized velocity vectors and vorticity fields on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.72, (c) 0.85, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

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Fig. 10

Zoomed-in views of the snapshot streamlines on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.72, (c) 0.85, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

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Fig. 11

(a) Normalized luminescent intensity image, (b) skin friction lines, and (c) skin friction vectors and normalized magnitude field on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

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Fig. 12

Comparison between: (a) skin friction lines obtained by using the GLOF method in the wind tunnel and (b) near-wall streamlines from PIV in the water tunnel on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

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Fig. 13

Normalized luminescent intensity images on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 14

Skin friction lines on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 15

Skin friction vectors and normalize magnitude fields on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

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Fig. 16

Normalized velocity vectors and vorticity fields on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.7, (c) 0.8, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

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Fig. 17

Zoomed-in views of the snapshot streamlines on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.7, (c) 0.8, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

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