0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Skin Friction Fields and Surface Dye Patterns on Delta Wings in Water Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Tianshu Liu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
G-217, Parkview Campus,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
e-mail: tianshu.liu@wmich.edu

M. H. M. Makhmalbaf, RS Vewen Ramasamy, S. Kode, P. Merati

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
G-217, Parkview Campus,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 22, 2014; final manuscript received March 3, 2015; published online March 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.

J. Fluids Eng 137(7), 071202 (Jul 01, 2015) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1272; doi: 10.1115/1.4030041 History: Received May 22, 2014; Revised March 03, 2015; Online March 27, 2015

This paper discusses the relationship between skin friction fields and surface dye patterns in surface luminescent dye visualizations in water flows, providing a theoretical foundation for extraction of high-resolution skin friction fields. The limiting form of the mass diffusion equation at a wall is recast as an optical flow equation connecting skin friction with the luminescent dye intensity. Snapshot solutions are obtained from a time sequence of luminescent intensity images by solving the optical flow equation via the variational method, and then a normalized skin friction field is reconstructed by averaging the snapshot solutions. An error analysis is given to identify the major error sources and the limitations of the technique. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique, surface luminescent dye visualizations on a 65 deg delta wing and a 76/40 deg double-delta wing are conducted in a water tunnel. The extracted skin friction topology on the delta wings and the velocity fields obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) are discussed.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Winter, K. G., 1977, “An Outline of the Techniques Available for Measurement of Skin Friction in Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 18, pp. 1–57. [CrossRef]
Hanratty, T. J., and Campbell, J. A., 1996, “Measurement of Wall Shear Stress,” Fluid Mechanics Measurements, 2nd ed., R. J.Goldstein, ed., Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, Chap. 9.
Naughton, J. W., and Sheplak, M., 2002, “Modern Developments in Shear-Stress Measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 38(6–7), pp. 515–570. [CrossRef]
Reda, D. C., Wilder, M. C., Farina, D. J., and Zilliac, G., 1997, “New Methodology for the Measurement of Surface Shear Stress Vector Distributions,” AIAA J., 35(4), pp. 608–614. [CrossRef]
Reda, D. C., and Wilder, M. C., 2001, “Shear-Sensitive Liquid Crystal Coating Method Applied Through Transparent Test Surfaces,” AIAA J., 39(1), pp. 195–197. [CrossRef]
Fonov, S. D., Jones, G., Crafton, J., Fonov, V., and Goss, L., 2006, “The Development of Optical Technique for the Measurement of Pressure and Skin Friction,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 17(6), pp. 1261–1268. [CrossRef]
Crafton, J. W., Fonov, S. D., Jones, E. G., Goss, L. P., Forlines, R. A., and Fontaine, A., 2008, “Measurements of Skin Friction in Water Using Surface Stress Sensitive Films,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19(7), p. 075801. [CrossRef]
Brücker, C., Bauer, D., and Chaves, H., 2007, “Dynamic Response of Micro-Pillar Sensors Measuring Fluctuating Wall-Shear-Stress,” Exp. Fluids, 42(5), pp. 737–749. [CrossRef]
Große, S., and Schröder, W., 2008, “Mean Wall-Shear Stress Measurements Using the Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19(1), p. 015403. [CrossRef]
Gnanamanickam, E. P., and Sullivan, J. P., 2012, “Manufacture of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Pillar Wall Shear Stress Sensor Arrays,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 22(12), p. 125015. [CrossRef]
Liu, T., 2013, “Extraction of Skin Friction Fields From Surface Flow Visualizations as an Inverse Problem,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24(12), p. 124004. [CrossRef]
Liu, T., Montefort, J., Woodiga, S., Merati, P., and Shen, L., 2008, “Global Luminescent Oil Film Skin Friction Meter,” AIAA J., 46(2), pp. 476–485. [CrossRef]
Liu, T., Woodiga, S., and Ma, T., 2011, “Skin Friction Topology in a Region Enclosed by Penetrable Boundary,” Exp. Fluids, 51(6), pp. 1549–1562. [CrossRef]
Woodiga, S., and Liu, T., 2009, “Skin Friction Fields on Delta Wings,” Exp. Fluids, 47(6), pp. 897–911. [CrossRef]
Liu, T., and Shen, L., 2008, “Fluid Flow and Optical Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 614(11), pp. 253–291. [CrossRef]
Tikhonov, A. N., and Arsenin, V. Y., 1977, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems, Wiley, New York, Chap. II.
Groetsch, C. W., 1993, “Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences,” Vieweg Braunschweig, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, Chap. 5.
Gursul, I., 2004, “Recent Development in Delta Wing Aerodynamics,” Aeronaut. J., 108(1087), pp. 437–452.
Gursul, I., Gordnier, R., and Visbal, M., 2005, “Unsteady Aerodynamics of Nonslender Delta Wings,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 41(7), pp. 515–557. [CrossRef]
Tricoche, X., Garth, C., Bobach, T., and Scheuermann, G., 2004, “Accurate and Efficient Visualization of Flow Structures in a Delta Wing Simulation,” AIAA Paper No. 2004-2153. [CrossRef]
Zhong, S., 2002, “Detection of Flow Separation and Reattachment Using Shear-Sensitive Liquid Crystal,” Exp. Fluids, 32(6), pp. 667–673. [CrossRef]
Yavuz, M. M., Elkhoury, M., and Rockwell, D., 2004, “Near-Surface Topology and Flow Structure on a Delta Wing,” AIAA J.42(2), pp. 332–340. [CrossRef]
Cipolla, K. M., and Rockwell, D., 1998, “Instantaneous Crossflow Topology on a Delta Wing in Presence of Vortex Breakdown,” J. Aircr., 35(2), pp. 218–223. [CrossRef]
Hebbar, S., Platzer, M., and Khozam, A., 1996, “Experimental Study of Vortex Flow Control on Double-Delta Wings Using Fillets,” J. Aircr., 33(4), pp. 743–751. [CrossRef]
Hebbar, S., Platzer, M., and Fritzelas, A., 2000, “Reynolds Number Effects on the Vortical-Flow Structure Generated by a Double-Delta Wing,” Exp. Fluids, 28(3), pp. 206–216. [CrossRef]
Verhaagen, N. G., 2002, “Effects of Reynolds Number on Flow Over 76/40-Degree Double-Delta Wings,” J. Aircr., 39(6), pp. 1045–1052. [CrossRef]
Liu, T., Woodiga, S., Gregory, J., and Sullivan, J., 2014, “Global Skin Friction Diagnostics Based on Surface Mass-Transfer Visualizations,” AIAA J., 52(11), pp. 2369–2383. [CrossRef]
Bouvier, F., Le Sant, Y., and Merienne, M. C., 2001, “A New Skin Friction Technique Using Pressure Sensitive Paint,” Aerodynamic Research Conference, London, Apr. 9–10.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The domain-averaged skin friction magnitude and image intensity on a 65 deg delta wing as a function of time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The normalized skin friction magnitude distributions on a 65 deg delta wing at different times at: (a) x/c = 0.53 and (b) x/c = 0.87

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for mass transfer visualization by using a luminescent dye coating on a model surface in a water tunnel: (a) schematic view from a downstream location and (b) photo of the setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized luminescent intensity image, (b) skin friction lines, and (c) skin friction vectors and normalized magnitude field on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between: (a) skin friction lines obtained by using the GLOF method in the wind tunnel and (b) near-wall streamlines from PIV in the water tunnel on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized luminescent intensity images on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Skin friction lines on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Skin friction vectors and normalize magnitude fields on the upper surface of the 65 deg delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Normalized velocity vectors and vorticity fields on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.72, (c) 0.85, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Zoomed-in views of the snapshot streamlines on the 65 deg delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.72, (c) 0.85, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Normalized luminescent intensity image, (b) skin friction lines, and (c) skin friction vectors and normalized magnitude field on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison between: (a) skin friction lines obtained by using the GLOF method in the wind tunnel and (b) near-wall streamlines from PIV in the water tunnel on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Normalized luminescent intensity images on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Skin friction lines on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Skin friction vectors and normalize magnitude fields on the upper surface of the double-delta wing at: (a) AoA = 5 deg, (b) AoA = 20 deg, and (c) AoA = 30 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Normalized velocity vectors and vorticity fields on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.7, (c) 0.8, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Zoomed-in views of the snapshot streamlines on the double-delta wing at AoA = 10 deg at the chordwise locations of: (a) x/c = 0.6, (b) 0.7, (c) 0.8, and (d) 0.95, where the coordinates are normalized by the local span b(x)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In