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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Large Eddy Simulation of Flows Around a Kite Used as an Auxiliary Propulsion System

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Scupi

Faculty of Naval Electro-Mechanics,
Constanţa Maritime University,
104 Mircea cel Bătrân Street,
Constanţa 900663, Romania
e-mail: andrei.scupi@cmu-edu.eu

E. J. Avital

School of Engineering and Materials Science,
Queen Mary University of London,
Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK
e-mail: e.avital@qmul.ac.uk

D. Dinu

Faculty of Naval Electro-Mechanics,
Constanţa Maritime University,
104 Mircea cel Bătrân Street,
Constanţa 900663, Romania

J. J. R. Williams, A. Munjiza

School of Engineering and Materials Science,
Queen Mary University of London,
Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 3, 2013; final manuscript received March 3, 2015; published online June 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.

J. Fluids Eng 137(10), 101301 (Oct 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1532; doi: 10.1115/1.4030482 History: Received September 03, 2013; Revised March 03, 2015; Online June 08, 2015

The aerodynamic forces acting on a kite proposed for propelling marine shipping are investigated using computational and experimental means. Attention is given to the kite's positions as perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the air flow that still possess potential for thrust generation but cannot be analysed using finite wing models applicable for kites at low angles of attack. Good agreement is achieved in the prediction of the time-averaged drag coefficient between the large eddy simulations (LESs) of a full scale kite and wind tunnel measurements of a small scale kite model. At zero-yaw conditions both the time-averaged drag and lift (side) forces show behavior similar to the literature-reported empirical relations for flat plates of the same aspect ratio (AR), but with differences of up to 20% in the coefficients’ values. Thus, the plate’s known empirical formulae for aerodynamic forces at zero yaw angles may be used as fast low-accuracy prediction tools before engaging with the more costly turbulent flow computations and wind tunnel tests. Yawing moderately the kite can actually increase mildly the drag but further yawing or pitching it reduces the dominant drag force. Both the drag and lift show unsteady components that are related to the large turbulent wake behind the kite and vortical shedding from the kite's ends. Power spectra of the aerodynamic forces’ coefficients are presented and analysed.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the unconventional propulsion system

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Fig. 3

Projection view on the three-dimensional (3D) cell distribution in computational domain

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Fig. 5

Drag coefficient variation with the pitch angle θ that is plotted for the yaw angle φ = 0 deg

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Fig. 6

Drag coefficient variation with the pitch angle θ that is plotted for the yaw angle φ = 30 deg

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Fig. 7

Drag coefficient variation with the pitch angle θ that is plotted for the yaw angle φ = 45 deg

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Fig. 8

Drag coefficient variation with the pitch angle θ that is plotted for the yaw angle φ = 60 deg

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Fig. 9

Drag coefficient variation with the pitch angle θ that is plotted for the yaw angle φ = 90 deg

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Fig. 10

Drag coefficient variations with time that are plotted for (θ, φ) = (0, 0) and (0, 90 deg)

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Fig. 11

Power spectra of the drag coefficient that are plotted for the conditions of: (a) (θ, φ) = (0, 0) on the left figure and (b) (θ, φ) = (0, 90 deg) on the right figure

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous vorticity magnitude distribution that is plotted at “y” plane for the kite at pitch and yaw angles (θ, φ) = 0

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Fig. 13

Instantaneous vorticity magnitude distribution that is plotted at “z” plane for the kite at pitch and yaw angles (θ, φ) = 0

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Fig. 14

Instantaneous streamlines that are plotted at the same “z” plane as in Fig. 13

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Fig. 15

Instantaneous vorticity magnitude distribution that is plotted at a “z” plane for the kite at pitch and yaw angles (θ, φ) = (0, 90 deg)

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Fig. 16

Instantaneous streamlines that are plotted at the same “z” plane as in Fig. 15

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Fig. 17

Lift coefficient time-variations that are plotted for (θ, φ) = (0, 0) and (0, 90 deg)

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Fig. 18

Power spectra of the lift coefficient that are plotted for the conditions of: (a) (θ, φ) = (0, 0) on the left figure and (b) (θ, φ) = (0, 90 deg) on the right figure

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Fig. 19

The effect of an increase in the pitch angle θ on the lift coefficient for zero yaw angle

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