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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Improved Efficiency of Microdiffuser Through Geometry Tuning for Valveless Micropumps

[+] Author and Article Information
Arvind Chandrasekaran

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Concordia University,
1515 St. Catherine O
EV-13-235
Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada

Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Professor and Research
Chair on Optical BioMEMS
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Concordia University,
1515 St. Catherine O
EV-13-235
Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada
e-mail: pmuthu@alcor.concordia.ca

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 3, 2014; final manuscript received June 1, 2015; published online October 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Shizhi Qian.

J. Fluids Eng 138(3), 031101 (Oct 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1550; doi: 10.1115/1.4031256 History: Received October 03, 2014; Revised June 01, 2015

Flow rectification in a mechanical valveless micropump that has applications in biological and microrocket propulsion is brought about by pressure drop created across the nozzle/diffuser pair in conjunction with the actuation stroke of the micropump. It has been reported that geometric tuning of the diffuser helps in improving the overall diffuser efficiency. The aim of the present work is to apply the geometry tuning principle over a wide range of flow conditions and to study the usability of this technique for optimized micropump design. Finite element modeling (FEM) of the diffuser behavior with geometry tuning has been carried out for different diffuser configurations and flow conditions, and the results have been validated through selective experimentation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the microdiffuser/nozzle used in micropump

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Fig. 2

Tuning of diffuser elements with (a) concave and (b) convex geometries

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Fig. 3

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with convex tuning (βcx) for θd = 5 deg

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Fig. 4

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with convex tuning (βcx) for θd = 15 deg

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Fig. 5

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with convex tuning (βcx) for θd = 30 deg

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Fig. 6

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with convex tuning (βcx) for θd = 60 deg

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Fig. 7

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with convex tuning (βcx) for θd = 90 deg

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Fig. 8

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with concave tuning (βcv) for θd = 5 deg

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Fig. 9

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with concave tuning (βcv) for θd = 15 deg

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Fig. 10

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with concave tuning (βcv) for θd = 30 deg

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Fig. 11

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with concave tuning (βcv) for θd = 60 deg

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Fig. 12

Variation of pressure coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the diffuser Reynolds number (Red) for diffusers with concave tuning (βcv) for θd = 90 deg

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Fig. 13

Variation of the diffuser efficiencies with Reynolds numbers for convex tuned diffusers of different diffuser angles

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Fig. 14

Variation of the diffuser efficiencies with Reynolds numbers for concave tuned diffusers of different diffuser angles

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Fig. 15

Variation of the best efficiency zones with (a) convex and (b) concave geometric tuning for each diffuser angle

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Fig. 16

Comparison of the variation of diffuser efficiencies for (a) convex tuning, (b) straight diffuser, and (c) concave tuning

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Fig. 17

The different input and output parameters involved in the design of diffuser

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Fig. 18

(a) Schematic and (b) experimental setup for measuring the pressure across diffuser microchannels

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Fig. 19

Variation of experimental and predicted pressure drop coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the throat velocity of the diffuser (Vdin) for θd = 5 deg β = 1

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Fig. 20

Variation of experimental and predicted pressure drop coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the throat velocity of the diffuser (Vdin) for θd = 15 deg β = 1

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Fig. 21

Variation of experimental and predicted pressure drop coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the throat velocity of the diffuser (Vdin) for θd = 30 deg βcx = 0.4

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Fig. 22

Variation of experimental and predicted pressure drop coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the throat velocity of the diffuser (Vdin) for θd = 60 deg and βcx = 0.2

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Fig. 23

Variation of experimental and predicted pressure drop coefficients: (a) ξd and (b) ξn with the throat velocity of the diffuser (Vdin) for θd = 90 deg and βcx = 0.2

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Fig. 24

Plot of variation of the predicted and the experimental diffuser efficiency for different diffuser angles

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