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Technical Brief

Ultrahigh-Temperature Continuous Reactors Based on Electrothermal Fluidized Bed Concept

[+] Author and Article Information
Sergiy S. Fedorov

National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine,
Dniepropetrovsk 49600, Ukraine
e-mail: fedorov.pte@gmail.com

Upendra Singh Rohatgi

Mem. ASME
Brookhaven National Laboratory,
Upton, NY 11973
e-mail: rohatgi@bnl.gov

Igor V. Barsukov

American Energy Technologies Co.,
Arlington Heights, IL 60004
e-mail: ibarsukov@usaenergytech.com

Mykhailo V. Gubynskyi

National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine,
Dniepropetrovsk 49600, Ukraine
e-mail: gubinm58@gmail.com

Michelle G. Barsukov

American Energy Technologies Co.,
Arlington Heights, IL 60004
e-mail: Michelle.Barsukov@usaenergytech.com

Brian S. Wells

American Energy Technologies Co.,
Arlington Heights, IL 60004
e-mail: Brian.Wells@usaenergytech.com

Mykola V. Livitan

National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk 49600, Ukraine
e-mail: nvlivitan@gmail.com

Oleksiy G. Gogotsi

Materials Research Centre, Ltd.,
Kiev 03680, Ukraine
e-mail: alex@dom.ua

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 19, 2014; final manuscript received August 1, 2015; published online December 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: E. E. Michaelides. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Fluids Eng 138(4), 044502 (Dec 08, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1770; doi: 10.1115/1.4031689 History: Received December 19, 2014; Revised August 01, 2015

Authors introduce an ultrahigh-temperature (i.e., 2500–3000 °C) continuous fluidized bed furnace, in which the key operating variable is specific electrical resistance of the bed. A correlation has been established to predict the specific electrical resistance for the natural graphite-based precursors. Fluid dynamics models have been validated with the data from a fully functional prototype reactor. Data collected demonstrated that the difference between the calculated and measured values of specific resistance is approximately 25%; due to chaotic nature of electrothermal fluidized bed processes, this discrepancy was deemed acceptable. Optimizations proposed allow producing natural graphite-based end product with the purity level of 99.98 + wt. %C for battery markets.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sources and effects of gassing in batteries: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) of mineral impurities in graphite (a) modeling the effect of gas evolution inside an AA size cylindrical battery (static stress mapping), (b) a cutaway view of a stress model (deformation scale 1:1), and (c) stress diagram of a cylindrical AA cell (deformation scale 104:1)

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Fig. 2

Cutaway view of a continuous electrothermal fluidized bed reactor: 1—center electrode; 2—lining of the overbed space; 3—loading zone of graphite feed; 4—active working zone of reactor; 5—lower bed zone; 6—cooling system (product exit); and 7—feed bin

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Fig. 3

Key fluid mechanics modes of the fluidized bed reactor, as observed in the cold reactor experiments: (а) stagnant bed, (b) transitional operating mode, (c) low-bubbling mode, (d) intense bubbling mode; and (e) photo of the cold model reactor outfitted with Plexiglas wall; 1—center electrode, 2—overbed space, 4—active working zone of reactor; 8—bottom distributor plate where the product exits the reactor; 9—outer shell of reactor; 10—bed of graphite particles which undergo fluidization; and 11—differential pressure gauge

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Fig. 4

Segmental cross section of a fluidized bed reactor used for thermal purification of graphite

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Fig. 5

Pilot continuous electrothermal fluidized bed reactor: (a) engineering model; (b) actual reactor; and (c) schematic of active fluidization zone

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Fig. 6

Numerically modeled properties of electrothermal fluid bed reactors: (a) and (b)—working areas for selected operation regimes; T—voltammogram of the fluidized bed for a given temperature (Тb < Тa); G—voltammogram of the furnace at a given throughput (Gb > Ga); W—parallel lines of constant power (Wb > Wa); and Us(I)—voltammograms of the power supply

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