0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Freeman Scholar Review: Passive and Active Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Boundary Layers

[+] Author and Article Information
Marc Perlin

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

David R. Dowling

Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Steven L. Ceccio

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 1, 2015; final manuscript received March 5, 2016; published online June 2, 2016. Editor: Malcolm J. Andrews.

J. Fluids Eng 138(9), 091104 (Jun 02, 2016) (16 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1228; doi: 10.1115/1.4033295 History: Received April 01, 2015; Revised March 05, 2016

A variety of skin-friction drag reduction (FDR) methods for turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flows are reviewed. Both passive and active methods of drag reduction are discussed, along with a review of the fundamental processes responsible for friction drag and FDR. Particular emphasis is given to methods that are applicable to external hydrodynamic flows where additives are diluted by boundary layer entrainment. The methods reviewed include those based on engineered surfaces (riblets, large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs), and superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS)), those based on additives (polymer injection and gas injection), and those based on morphological alterations in the boundary layer flow (air layers and partial cavity formation). A common theme for all methods is their disruption of one or more of the underlying physical processes responsible for the production of skin-friction drag in a TBL. Opportunities and challenges for practical implementation of FDR techniques are also discussed.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schultz, M. P. , Bendick, J. A. , Holm, E. R. , and Hertel, W. M. , 2011, “ Economic Impact of Biofouling on a Naval Surface Ship,” Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm Res., 27(1), pp. 87–98. [CrossRef]
Holm, E. R. , 2012, “ Barnacles and Biofouling,” Int. Comput. Biol., 52(3), pp. 348–355. [CrossRef]
Spalart, P. R. , and McLean, J. D. , 2011, “ Drag Reduction: Enticing Turbulence, and Then an Industry,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A, 369(1940), pp. 1556–1569. [CrossRef]
Klewicki, J. C. , 2010, “ Reynolds Number Dependence, Scaling, and Dynamics of Turbulent Boundary Layers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng. 132(9), p. 094001. [CrossRef]
Jiménez, J. , 2013, “ Near-Wall Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids 25(10), p. 101302. [CrossRef]
Marusic, I. , and Adrian, R. J. , 2013, “ The Eddies and Scales of Wall Turbulence,” Turbulence, by P. Davidson, Y. Kaneda, and K. R. Sreenivasan , eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 176–220.
Jiménez, J. , and Kawahara, G. , 2013, “ Dynamics of Wall-Bounded Turbulence,” Turbulence, P. Davidson, Y. Kaneda, and K. R. Sreenivasan , eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 221–268.
Marusic, I. , McKeon, B. J. , Monkewitz, P. A. , Nagib, H. M. , Smits, A. J. , and Sreenivasan, K. R. , 2010, “ Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows at High Reynolds Numbers: Recent Advances and Key Issues,” Phys. Fluids, 22(6), p. 065103. [CrossRef]
Smits, A. J. , McKeon, B. J. , and Marusic, I. , 2011, “ High Reynolds Number Wall Turbulence,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 43(1), pp. 353–375. [CrossRef]
Flack, K. A. , and Schultz, M. P. , 2010, “ Review of Hydraulic Roughness Scales in the Fully Rough Regime,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132(4), p. 041203. [CrossRef]
Flack, K. A. , and Schultz, M. P. , 2014, “ Roughness Effects on Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows,” Phys. Fluids, 26(10), p. 101305. [CrossRef]
Oweis, G. F. , Winkel, E. S. , Cutbirth, J. M. , Perlin, M. , Ceccio, S. L. , and Dowling, D. R. , 2010, “ The Mean Velocity Profile of a Smooth Flat-Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds Number,” J. Fluid Mech., 665, pp. 357–381. [CrossRef]
Schultz-Grunow, F. , 1941, “ New Frictional Resistance Law for Smooth Plates,” NACA Technical Memorandum No. 17–18, pp. 1–24.
White, F. M. , 2006, Viscous Fluid Flow, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Chauhan, K. A. , Monkewitz, P. A. , and Nagib, H. M. , 2009, “ Criteria for Assessing Experiments in Zero Pressure Gradient Boundary Layers,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 41(2), p. 021404. [CrossRef]
Barenblatt, G. I. , 1993, “ Scaling Laws for Fully Developed Shear Flows. Part I. Basic Hypotheses and Analysis,” J. Fluid Mech., 248, pp. 513–520. [CrossRef]
George, W. K. , and Castillo, L. , 1997, “ Zero-Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 50(12), pp. 689–729. [CrossRef]
Klewicki, J. , Fife, P. , and Wei, T. , 2009, “ On the Logarithmic Mean Profile,” J. Fluid Mech., 638, pp. 73–93. [CrossRef]
Winkel, E. S. , Cutbirth, J. M. , Ceccio, S. L. , Perlin, M. , and Dowling, D. R. , 2012, “ Turbulence Profiles From a Smooth Flat-Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds Number,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 40, pp. 140–149. [CrossRef]
Monkewitz, P. A. , Chauhan, K. A. , and Nagib, H. M. , 2007, “ Self-Consistent High-Reynolds-Number Asymptotics for Zero-Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers,” Phys. Fluids, 19(11), p. 115101. [CrossRef]
Nagib, H. M. , and Chauhan, K. A. , 2008, “ Variations of von Kármán Coefficient in Canonical Flows,” Phys. Fluids 20(10), p. 101518. [CrossRef]
Bourassa, C. , and Thomas, F. O. , 2009, “ An Experimental Investigation of a Highly Accelerated Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 634, pp. 359–404. [CrossRef]
Coles, D. E. , 1956, “ The Law of the Wake in the Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 1(02), pp. 191–226. [CrossRef]
Jiménez, J. , and Pinelli, A. , 1999, “ The Autonomous Cycle of Near-Wall Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 389, pp. 335–359. [CrossRef]
Jiménez, J. , 2004, “ Turbulent Flows Over Rough Walls,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36(1), pp.173–196. [CrossRef]
Nikuradse, J. , 1933, “ Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes,” NACA Technical Memorandum No. 1292.
Colebrook, C. F. , 1939, “ Turbulent Flow in Pipes, With Particular Reference to the Transitional Regime Between Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws,” J. Inst. Civ. Eng., 11(4), pp. 133–156. [CrossRef]
Flack, K. A. , Schultz, M. P. , and Rose, W. B. , 2012, “ The Onset of Roughness Effects in the Transitionally Rough Regime,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 35, pp. 160–167. [CrossRef]
Schlichtling, H. , 1979, Boundary Layer Theory, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 652–654.
Walsh, M. J. , 1983, “ Riblets as a Viscous Drag Reduction Technique,” AIAA J., 21(4), pp. 485–486. [CrossRef]
Choi, K.-S. , 1989, “ Near-Wall Structure of a Turbulent Boundary Layer With Riblets,” J. Fluid Mech., 208, pp. 417–458. [CrossRef]
Coustols, E. , and Savill, A. M. , 1992, “ Turbulent Skin-Friction Drag Reduction by Active and Passive Means,” AGARD Report No. 786.
Bushnell, D. , 2003, “ Aircraft Drag Reduction—A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G: J. Aerosp. Eng., 217(1), pp. 1–18. [CrossRef]
García-Mayoral, R. , and Jiménez, J. , 2011, “ Drag Reduction by Riblets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A, 369(1940), pp. 1412–1427. [CrossRef]
Choi, H. , Moin, P. , and Kim, J. , 1993, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow Over Riblets,” J. Fluid Mech., 255, pp. 503–539. [CrossRef]
Bechert, D. W. , Bruse, M. , and Hage, W. , 2000, “ Experiments With Three-Dimensional Riblets as an Idealized Model of Shark Skin,” Exp. Fluids, 28(5), pp. 403–412. [CrossRef]
Peet, Y. , and Sagaut, P. , 2009, “ Theoretical Prediction of Turbulent Skin Friction on Geometrically Complex Surfaces,” Phys. Fluids, 21(10), p. 105105. [CrossRef]
Sasamori, M. , Mamori, H. , and Iwamoto, K. , 2014, “ Experimental Study on Drag-Reduction Effect Due to Sinusoidal Riblets in Turbulent Channel Flow,” Exp. Fluids, 55(1828), pp. 1–14.
Riley, J. J. , Gad-el-Hak, M. , and Metcalfe, R. W. , 1988, “ Compliant Coatings,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 20(1), pp. 393–420. [CrossRef]
Gad-el-Hak, M. , 2002, “ Compliant Coatings for Drag Reduction,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 38(1), pp. 77–99. [CrossRef]
Fish, F. E. , and Lauder, G. V. , 2006, “ Passive and Active Flow Control by Swimming Fishes and Mammals,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 38(1), pp. 193–224. [CrossRef]
Kulik, V. M. , Poguda, I. S. , and Semenov, B. N. , 1991, “ Experimental Investigation of One-Layer Viscoelastic Coatings Action on Turbulent Friction and Wall Pressure Pulsations,” Recent Developments in Turbulence Management, K. S. Choi , ed., Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 263–289.
Choi, K. S. , Yang, X. , Clayton, B. R. , Glover, T. , Atlar, M. , Semenov, B. N. , and Kulik, V. M. , 1997, “ Turbulent Drag Reduction Using Compliant Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 453(1965), pp. 2229–2240. [CrossRef]
Bandyopadhyay, P. R. , Henoch, C. , Hrubes, J. D. , Semenov, B. N. , Amirov, A. I. , Kulik, V. M. , Malyuga, A. G. , Choi, K.-S. , and Escudier, M. P. , 2005, “ Experiments on the Effects of Aging on Compliant Coating Drag Reduction,” Phys. Fluids, 17(8), p. 085104. [CrossRef]
Wilkinson, P. , Anders, J. B. , Lazos, B. S. , and Bushnell, D. M. , 1988, “ Turbulent Drag Reduction Research at NASA Langley: Progress and Plans,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 9(3), pp. 266–277. [CrossRef]
Spalart, P. R. , Strelets, M. , and Travin, A. , 2006, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Large-Eddy-Break-Up Devices in a Boundary Layer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 27(5), pp. 902–910. [CrossRef]
Park, H. , An, N. H. , Hutchins, N. , Choi, K.-S. , Chun, H. H. , and Lee, I. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation on the Drag Reducing Efficiency of the Outer-Layer Vertical Blades,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 16(4), pp. 390–401. [CrossRef]
Onda, T. , Shibuichi, S. , Satoh, N. , and Tsujii, K. , 1996, “ Super-Water-Repellent Fractal Surfaces,” Langmuir, 12(9), pp. 2125–2127. [CrossRef]
Ma, M. , and Hill, R. M. , 2006, “ Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 11(4), pp. 193–202. [CrossRef]
Roach, P. , Shirtcliffe, N. J. , and Newton, M. I. , 2008, “ Progress in Superhydrophobic Surface Development,” Soft Matter, 4(2), pp. 224–240. [CrossRef]
Nosonovsky, M. , and Bhushan, B. , 2009, “ Multiscale Effects and Capillary Interactions in Functional Biomimetic Surfaces for Energy Conversion and Green Engineering,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A, 367(1893), pp. 1511–1539. [CrossRef]
Ou, J. , and Rothstein, J. P. , 2005, “ Direct Velocity Measurements of the Flow Past Drag-Reducing Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. Fluids, 17(10), p. 103606. [CrossRef]
Rothstein, J. P. , 2010, “ Slip on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(1), pp. 89–109. [CrossRef]
Henoch, C. , Krupenkin, T. N. , Kolodner, P. , Taylor, J. A. , Hodes, M. S. , Lyons, A. M. , Peguero, C. , and Breuer, K. , 2006, “ Turbulent Drag Reduction Using Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-3192.
Daniello, R. J. , Waterhouse, N. E. , and Rothstein, J. P. , 2009, “ Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flows Over Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. Fluids, 21(8), p. 085103. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J. , Du, X. , and Shi, X. , 2007, “ Experimental Research on Friction Reduction With Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” J. Mar. Sci. Appl., 6(3), pp. 58–61. [CrossRef]
Aljallis, E. , Sarshar, M. A. , Datla, R. , Sikka, V. , Jones, A. , and Choi, C. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Skin Friction Drag Reduction on Superhydrophobic Flat Plates in High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Flows,” Phys. Fluids, 25(2), p. 025103. [CrossRef]
Park, H. , Sun, G. , and Kim, C. , 2014, “ Superhydrophobic Turbulent Drag Reduction as a Function of Surface Grating Parameters,” J. Fluid Mech., 747, pp. 722–734. [CrossRef]
Bidkar, R. A. , Leblanc, L. , Kulkarni, A. J. , Bahadur, V. , Ceccio, S. L. , and Perlin, M. , 2014, “ Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in the Turbulent Regime Using Random-Textured Hydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. Fluids, 26(8), p. 085108. [CrossRef]
Min, T. , and Kim, J. , 2004, “ Effects of Hydrophobic Surface on Skin-Friction Drag,” Phys. Fluids, 16(7), pp. L55–L58. [CrossRef]
Toms, B. A. , 1948, “ Some Observations on the Flow of Linear Polymer Solutions Through Straight Tubes at Large Reynolds Numbers,” First International Congress on Rheology, Vol. 2, pp. 135–141.
Lumley, J. L. , 1969, “ Drag Reduction by Additives,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 1(1), pp. 367–387. [CrossRef]
Liaw, G. C. , Zakin, J. L. , and Patterson, G. K. , 1971, “ Effects of Molecular Characteristics of Polymers on Drag Reduction,” AICHE J., 17(2), pp. 391–397. [CrossRef]
Hoyt, J. W. , 1972, “ Effects of Additives on Fluid Friction,” J. Basic Eng., 94(2), pp. 258–285. [CrossRef]
Virk, P. S. , 1975, “ Drag Reduction Fundamentals,” AICHE J., 21(4), pp. 625–656. [CrossRef]
Berman, N. S. , 1978 “ Drag Reduction by Polymers,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 10(1), pp. 47–64. [CrossRef]
Sellin, R. H. J. , Hoyt, J. W. , Pollert, J. , and Scrivener, O. , 1982, “ The Effect of Drag Reducing Additives on Fluid Flows and Their Industrial Applications: Part II. Basic Applications and Future Proposals,” J. Hydraul. Res., 20(3), pp. 235–292. [CrossRef]
McComb, W. , 1990, The Physics of Fluid Turbulence, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Nieuwstadt, F. T. M. , and Den Toonder, J. , 2001, “ Drag Reduction by Additives: A Review,” Turbulence Structure and Motion, A. Soldati and R. Monti , eds., Springer, New York, pp. 269–316.
White, C. M. , and Mungal, M. G. , 2008, “ Mechanics and Prediction of Turbulent Drag Reduction With Polymer Additives,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 40(1), pp. 235–256. [CrossRef]
Dubief, Y. , White, C. M. , Terrapon, V. E. , Shaqfeh, E. S. G. , Moin, P. , and Lele, S. K. , 2004, “ On the Coherent Drag-Reducing and Turbulence-Enhancing Behaviour of Polymers in Wall Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 514, pp. 271–280. [CrossRef]
Zakin, J. L. , Lu, B. , and Bewersdorff, H.-W. , 1998, “ Surfactant Drag Reduction,” Rev. Chem. Eng., 14(4–5), pp. 253–320.
Winkel, E. S. , Oweis, G. F. , Vanapalli, S. A. , Dowling, D. R. , Perlin, M. , Solomon, M. J. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2009, “ High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer Friction Drag Reduction From Wall-Injected Polymer Solutions,” J. Fluid Mech., 621, pp. 259–288. [CrossRef]
Vdovin, A. V. , and Smol'yakov, A. V. , 1981, “ Turbulent Diffusion of Polymers in a Boundary Layer,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys., 22, pp. 526–531. [CrossRef]
Petrie, H. L. , Brungart, T. A. , and Fontaine, A. A. , 1996, “ Drag Reduction on a Flat Plate at High Reynolds Number With Slot-Injected Polymer Solutions,” ASME Paper No. FED-237, pp. 3–10.
Wu, J. , and Tulin, M. P. , 1972, “ Drag Reduction by Ejecting Additive Solutions Into Pure-Water Boundary Layer,” J. Basic Eng., 94(4), pp. 749–754. [CrossRef]
Fruman, D. H. , and Tulin, M. P. , 1976, “ Diffusion of a Tangential Drag-Reducing Polymer Injection on a Flat Plate at High Reynolds Numbers,” J. Ship Res., 20(3), pp. 171–180.
Vdovin, A. V. , and Smol'yakov, A. V. , 1978, “ Diffusion of a Polymer Solution in a Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys., 19(2), pp. 196–201. [CrossRef]
Fontaine, A. A. , Petrie, H. L. , and Brungart, T. A. , 1992, “ Velocity Profile Statistics in a Turbulent Boundary Layer With Slot-Injected Polymer,” J. Fluid Mech., 238, pp. 435–466. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Solomon, M. J. , Perlin, M. , Dowling, D. R. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2011, “ Flow-Induced Degradation of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions Within a High-Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 670, pp. 337–364. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Dowling, D. R. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2010, “ Diffusion of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions Within a Rough-Walled Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Phys. Fluids, 22(4), p. 045102. [CrossRef]
Yang, J. W. , Park, H. , Chun, H. H. , Ceccio, S. L. , Perlin, M. , and Lee, I. , 2014, “ Development and Performance at High Reynolds Number of a Skin-Friction Reducing Marine Paint Using Polymer Additives,” Ocean Eng., 84, pp. 183–193. [CrossRef]
Patterson, R. W. , and Abernathy, F. H. , 1970, “ Turbulent Flow Drag Reduction and Degradation With Dilute Polymer Solutions,” J. Fluid Mech., 43(4), pp. 689–710. [CrossRef]
Vanapalli, S. A. , Ceccio, S. L. , and Solomon, M. J. , 2006, “ Universal Scaling for Polymer Chain Scission in Turbulence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103(45), pp. 16660–16665. [CrossRef]
Garwood, G. C. , Winkel, E. S. , Vanapalli, S. , Elbing, B. , Walker, D. T. , Ceccio, S. L. , Perlin, M. , and Solomon, M. J. , 2005, “ Drag Reduction by a Homogenous Polymer Solution in Large Diameter, High Shear Pipe Flow,” International Symposium on Drag Reduction, Busan, Korea.
Elbing, B. R. , Winkel, E. S. , Solomon, M. J. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2009, “ Degradation of Homogeneous Polymer Solutions in High Shear Turbulent Pipe Flow,” Exp. Fluids, 47(6), pp. 1033–1044. [CrossRef]
Ceccio, S. L. , 2010, “ Friction Drag Reduction of External Flows With Bubble and Gas Injection,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(1), pp. 183–203. [CrossRef]
Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. , 2014, Mitigation of Hydrodynamic Resistance: Methods to Reduce Hydrodynamic Drag, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.
McCormick, M. E. , and Bhattacharyya, R. , 1973, “ Drag Reduction on a Submersible Hull by Electrolysis,” Nav. Eng. J., 85(2), pp. 11–16. [CrossRef]
Merkle, C. L. , and Deutsch, S. , 1992, “ Drag Reduction in Liquid Boundary Layers by Gas Injection,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut., 123, pp. 351–412.
Guin, M. M. , Kato, H. , Yamaguchi, H. , Maeda, M. , and Miyanaga, M. , 1996, “ Reduction of Skin Friction by Microbubbles and Its Relation With Near-Wall Bubble Concentration in a Channel,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 1(5), pp. 241–254. [CrossRef]
Kato, H. , Miura, K. , Yamaguchi, H. , and Miyanaga, M. , 1998, “ Experimental Study on Microbubble Ejection Method for Frictional Drag Reduction,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 3(3), pp. 122–129. [CrossRef]
Kodama, Y. , Kakugawa, A. , Takahashi, T. , and Kawashima, H. , 2000, “ Experimental Study on Microbubbles and Their Applicability to Ships for Skin Friction Reduction,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21(5), pp. 582–588. [CrossRef]
Moriguchi, Y. , and Kato, H. , 2002, “ Influence of Microbubble Diameter and Distribution on Frictional Resistance Reduction,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 7(2), pp. 79–85. [CrossRef]
Murai, Y. , Fukuda, H. , Oishi, Y. , Kodama, Y. , and Yamamoto, F. , 2007, “ Skin Friction Reduction by Large Air Bubbles in a Horizontal Channel Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 33(2), pp. 147–163. [CrossRef]
Murai, Y. , 2014, “ Frictional Drag Reduction by Bubble Injection,” Exp. Fluids, 55(1077), pp. 1–28.
Madavan, N. K. , Deutsch, S. , and Merkle, C. L. , 1985, “ Measurements of Local Skin Friction in a Microbubble-Modified Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 156, pp. 237–256. [CrossRef]
Madavan, N. K. , Deutsch, S. , and Merkle, C. L. , 1985, “ Numerical Investigation Into the Mechanisms of Microbubble Drag Reduction,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107(3), pp. 370–377. [CrossRef]
Takahashi, T. , Kakugawa, A. , Makino, M. , and Kodama, Y. , 2003, “ Experimental Study on Scale Effect of Drag Reduction by Microbubbles Using Very Large Flat Plate Ships,” J. Kansai Soc. Nav. Arch. Jpn., 239, pp. 11–20.
Sanders, W. C. , Winkel, E. S. , Dowling, D. R. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2006, “ Bubble Friction Drag Reduction in a High-Reynolds-Number Flat-Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 552, pp. 353–380. [CrossRef]
Ferrante, A. , and Elghobashi, S. , 2004, “ On the Physical Mechanisms of Drag Reduction in a Spatially Developing Turbulent Boundary Layer Laden With Microbubbles,” J. Fluid Mech., 503, pp. 345–355. [CrossRef]
Winkel, E. S. , Ceccio, S. L. , Dowling, D. R. , and Perlin, M. , 2004, “ Bubble Size Distributions Produced by Wall-Injection of Air Into Flowing Freshwater, Saltwater, and Surfactant Solutions,” Exp. Fluids, 37(6), pp. 802–810. [CrossRef]
Shen, X. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2006, “ Influence of Bubble Size on Micro-Bubble Drag Reduction,” Exp. Fluids, 41(3), pp. 415–424. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Winkel, E. S. , Lay, K. A. , Ceccio, S. L. , Dowling, D. R. , and Perlin, M. , 2008, “ Bubble-Induced Skin-Friction Drag Reduction and the Abrupt Transition to Air-Layer Drag Reduction,” J. Fluid Mech., 612, pp. 201–236. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Makiharju, S. , Wiggins, A. , Perlin, M. , Dowling, D. R. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2013, “ On the Scaling of Air Layer Drag Reduction,” J. Fluid Mech., 717, pp. 484–513. [CrossRef]
Hoang, C. L. , Toda, Y. , and Sanada, Y. , 2009, “ Full Scale Experiment for Frictional Resistance Reduction Using Air Lubrication Method,” 19th International Offshore Polar Engineering Conference, pp. 812–817.
Mizokami, S. , Kawakita, C. , Kodan, Y. , Takano, S. , Higasa, S. , and Shigenaga, R. , 2010, “ Experimental Study of Air Lubrication Method and Verification of Effects on Actual Hull by Means of Sea Trial,” Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Tech. Rev., 47(3), pp. 41–47.
Makiharju, S. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2012, “ On the Energy Economics of air Lubrication Drag Reduction,” Int. J. Nav. Arch. Ocean Eng., 4(4), pp. 412–422. [CrossRef]
Amromin, E. , and Mizine, I. , 2003, “ Partial Cavitation as Drag Reduction Technique and Problem of Active Flow Control,” Mar. Technol., 40(3), pp. 181–188.
Matveev, K. I. , 2003, “ Technical Note on the Limiting Parameters of Artificial Cavitation,” Ocean Eng., 30(9), pp. 1179–1190. [CrossRef]
Lay, K. A. , Yakushiji, R. , Makiharju, S. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2010, “ Partial Cavity Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers,” J. Ship Res., 54(2), pp. 109–119.
Makiharju, S. , Elbing, B. R. , Wiggins, A. D. , Schinasi, S. , Vanden-Broeck, J.-M. , Perlin, M. , Dowling, D. R. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2013, “ On the Scaling of Air Entrainment From a Ventilated Partial Cavity,” J. Fluid Mech., 732, pp. 47–76. [CrossRef]
Kasagi, N. , Suzuki, Y. , and Fukagata, K. , 2009, “ Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Feedback Control of Turbulence for Skin Friction Reduction,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 41(1), pp. 231–251. [CrossRef]
Yoon, H. S. , El-Samni, O. A. , and Chun, H. H. , 2006, “ Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow With Periodically Arrayed Heating and Cooling Strips,” Phys. Fluids, 18(2), p. 025104. [CrossRef]
Kametani, Y. , and Fukagata, K. , 2012, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Boundary Layer for Skin Friction Drag Reduction by Wall Surface-Heating or Cooling,” J. Turbul., 13(34), pp. 1–20.
Berger, T. W. , Kim, J. , Lee, C. , and Lim, J. , 2000, “ Turbulent Boundary Layer Control Utilizing the Lorentz Force,” Phys. Fluids, 12(3), pp. 631–649. [CrossRef]
Mamori, H. , and Fukagata, K. , 2011, “ Drag Reduction by Streamwise Traveling Wave-Like Lorenz Force in Channel Flow,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 318, p. 022030.
Simpson, R. L. , Moffat, R. J. , and Kays W. M. , 1969, “ The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Porous Plate: Experimental Skin Friction With Variable Injection and Suction,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12(7), pp. 771–789. [CrossRef]
Antonia, R. A. , Zhu, Y. , and Sokolov, M. , 1995, “ Effect of Concentrated Wall Suction on a Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Phys. Fluids, 7(10), pp. 2465–2474. [CrossRef]
Bewley, T. R. , and Aamo, O. L. , 2014, “ A ‘Win–Win’ Mechanism for Low-Drag Transients in Controlled Two-Dimensional Channel Flow and Its Implications for Sustained Drag Reduction,” J. Fluid Mech., 499, pp. 183–196. [CrossRef]
Min, T. , Kang, S. M. , Speyer, J. L. , and Kim, J. , 2006, “ Sustained Sub-Laminar Drag in a Fully Developed Channel Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 558, pp. 309–318. [CrossRef]
Choi, K.-S. , DeBisschop, J.-R. , and Clayton, B. R. , 1998, “ Turbulent Boundary-Layer Control by Means of Spanwise-Wall Oscillation,” AIAA J., 36(7), pp. 1157–1163. [CrossRef]
Baron, A. , and Quadrio, M. , 1996, “ Turbulent Drag Reduction by Spanwise Wall Oscillations,” Appl. Sci. Res., 55(4), pp. 311–326. [CrossRef]
Fukagata, K. , 2011, “ Drag Reduction by Wavy Surfaces,” J. Fluid Sci. Technol., 6(1), pp. 2–13. [CrossRef]
Tomiyama, N. , and Fukagata, K. , 2013, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow Using Spanwise Traveling Wave-Like Wall Deformation,” Phys. Fluids, 25(10), p. 105115. [CrossRef]
Itoh, M. , Tamano, S. , Yokota, K. , and Taniguchi, S. , 2006, “ Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flexible Sheet Undergoing a Spanwise Traveling Wave Motion,” J. Turbul., 7(27), p. N27. [CrossRef]
Tamano, S. , and Itoh, M. , 2012, “ Drag Reduction in Turbulent Boundary Layers by Spanwise Traveling Waves With Wall Deformation,” J. Turbul., 13, p. N9. [CrossRef]
Nieuwstadt, F. T. M. , Wolthers, W. , Leijdens, H. , Prasad, K. , and Schwarz-van Manen, A. , 1993, “ The Reduction of Skin Friction by Riblets Under the Influence of an Adverse Pressure Gradient,” Exp. Fluids, 15, pp. 17–26. [CrossRef]
Clark, H. , and Deutsch, S. , 1991, “ Microbubble Skin Friction Reduction on an Axisymmetric Body Under the Influence of Applied Axial Pressure Gradients,” Phys. Fluids, 3(12), pp. 2948–2954. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

TBL geometry. Boundary layer development begins at x = 0, and the surface on which the boundary layer forms coincides with y = 0. The undisturbed flow at speed Ue is parallel to the surface on which the boundary layer forms, and δ(x) is the overall thickness of the boundary layer where the average velocity U(x,y) is less than Ue.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

TBL skin-friction coefficient versus Rex. The symbols with error bars are measurements from Ref. [12]. The solid curve is Eq. (2.3). The dashed lines are two classic skin-friction correlations for TBLs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mean velocity profile of a smooth-flat-plate TBL plotted in log-linear coordinates with law-of-the-wall normalizations. The data are replotted from Ref. [12] and represent three Reynolds numbers. The extent of the various layers within thisTBL flow is indicated by vertical dashed lines. The log-layer-to-wake-region boundary is usually assumed to begin at y/δ ≈ 0.15–0.20 in TBLs. Overall, the data collapse well for the inner layer region, as expected, and the logarithmic layer extends for approximately two decades. The wake region shows differences between the Reynolds numbers because its similarity variable is y/δ, and δ/lν differs between the various Reynolds numbers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mean velocity profile of a smooth-flat-plate TBL plotted using outer region scaling for the velocity defect Ue − U. The plotted data represent 12 different velocity profiles from the experiments reported in Refs. [12] and [19] covering the Reynolds number range 15,000 ≤ Reτ≤ 61,000. Here, the log law diverges from the measurements at y/δ ∼ 0.20. The difference seen between the log law and the data for y/δ > 0.2 is the wake component of the mean velocity profile.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic cartoon of flow structures in the buffer layer of near-wall turbulence. The low- and high-speed velocity streaks alternate and occur near the wall between the quasi-streamwise vortices with a nominal spanwise cycle distance of z+ ∼ 100. The nominal diameter of the quasi-streamwise vortices is 40 lν. The peak turbulence intensity and peak turbulence production in a TBL occur near y+ ∼ 12 and are both associated with the dynamic evolution of the depicted near-wall features.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Roughness function, ΔB, as a function of inner region scaled equivalent sand-grain roughness height, ks+=ksu*/v. The solid curve is the correlation of Colebrook [27] for surfaces typical of commercial pipes. The long-dashed curve follows the sand-grain roughness results of Nikuradse [26]. The short-dashed curves provide approximate upper and lower bounds for experimental results from a variety of rough surfaces. Although the chosen normalizations produce consistent results below ks+ of unity and above ks+ of ∼20, this figure shows that ks alone is insufficient to describe the effects of wall roughness between these nominal limiting values.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The cross-sectional geometry of V-, U-, and L-shaped riblets. The riblet channels are parallel to the streamwise direction of the flow, and the spanwise spacing is s, the height is h, and the area between the riblets is AG.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

% FDR as a function of s+ for a typical riblet. Adapted from Ref. [34].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of LEBUs employed in the study of Park et al. [47]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

A droplet on a smooth surface (a), on a textured surface in the Wenzel state where the liquid fill the texture on the surface (b), and in the Cassie–Baxter state (c), where gas pockets separate the liquid drop from the pores on the textured surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

This slip length, β = H + l, for the flow over a surface with a gas film (a) or SHS in the Cassie–Baxter state (b). Adapted from Ref. [51].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Plan and cross-sectional images of an unstructured SHS examined by Bidkar et al. [59], denoted as “sample 12”

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Friction drag coefficient versus Reynolds number from Ref. [59], where L is the length of the TBL from the virtual origin; the results from the SHS shown in Fig. 12 are denoted as sample 12; the “historical” is the average smooth-surface friction curve over many previous testing campaigns, and the “baseline” is the friction curve of the smooth sample from the tests of Bidkar et al. [59]. Sample 11 was not as effective and had a different surface coating on a similar roughness.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Results from Ref. [73] showing the highest levels of DR seen in these experiments. %DR is presented as a function of downstream distance from the injection location. The different symbols refer to the three speeds with the open circles 6.65 ms−1, the filled circles 13.2 ms−1, and the open squares 19.9 ms−1. The MW was 8 M, the concentration of PEO was 4000 wppm, and the flux, q/qs, was 10.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

cM as a function of K for WSR-301 polymer. The filled dots, squares, and triangles are for freestream speeds of 6.65, 13.2, and 19.9 ms−1 from Ref. [73]. The open set of the same symbols are for concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 wppm, and are from Ref. [77]. The plus and minus symbols are for an assumed value of 1000 wppm and represent the data of Vdovin and Smol'yakov [74,78], respectively. The results of Fontaine et al. [79] are given by the x symbols. The three superposed lines are for exponents of 0.20, 2.7, and 0.857 as shown, with the figure from Ref. [73].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

These figures (see Ref. [80]) demonstrate that the flow is fully rough (a), and that the roughness is of sand-grain type (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Reproduced from Elbing et al. [80], their Fig. 9 shows three speeds (6.8 (), 13.5 (), and 20.1 () ms−1) with a direct comparison of the DR on the rough (solid symbols) and smooth (open symbols) surfaces as a function of distance downstream

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Graph of the ratio of skin-friction coefficients for the upstream injection case as a function of distance downstream on the plate. Each of the three nominal speeds, 6, 12, and 18 ms−1, is presented with four injection volumetric flow rates.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

%DR as a function of volumetric gas injection rate per unit span, q, at four downstream locations. The horizontal line at 80% represents the (arbitrary) threshold used to define ALDR.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Air fluxes required for ALDR over rough and smooth surfaces [104], where q is the volume flux of injected gas per unit span beneath the bottom of a horizontal surface, and Ue is the freestream speed. Data for smooth and fully rough surfaces are shown. These data are compared to the approximate air fluxes used in the sea-trials reported by Hoang et al. [106] and Mizokami et al. [107].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Profile of the gate and model in the LCC's test section. The origin of the coordinate system is at the base of the backward facing step (BFS). For clarity, the axes are shown shifted to the side and not at the true location of the origin. Inset: the cavity-terminating beach colored gray shown in detail. The upstream height of the cavity (i.e., the backward-facing step) is 0.18 m. Notice that the flap is articulated and was oscillated during the experiments.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Nondimensional critical gas flux to establish and maintain cavities as a function of the Froude number for the two scales: the LCC and the mLCC

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In