Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Effects of Submergence on Low and Moderate Reynolds Number Free-Surface Flow Around a Matrix of Cubes

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Ikram

School of Engineering and Materials,
Queen Mary University of London,
327 Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK
e-mail: zaheerikram@gmail.com

E. J. Avital

School of Engineering and Materials,
Queen Mary University of London,
327 Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK
e-mail: e.avital@qmul.ac.uk

J. J. R. Williams

School of Engineering and Materials,
Queen Mary University of London,
327 Mile End Road,
London E1 4NS, UK
e-mail: j.j.r.williams@qmul.ac.uk

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 4, 2014; final manuscript received October 12, 2015; published online January 4, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Zhongquan Charlie Zheng.

J. Fluids Eng 138(5), 051102 (Jan 04, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1354; doi: 10.1115/1.4031852 History: Received July 04, 2014; Revised October 12, 2015

The effect of reducing submergence depth at a low and moderate Reynolds number flow is investigated using large eddy simulation (LES) around a matrix of cubes. The submerged body is modeled using an immersed boundary method, while the free-surface is accounted for using a moving mesh. Results show that for reducing the submergence depth, the forces acting on the cube reduce as the force variation increased. Variation in depth is also found to influence the level of damping and redistribution of turbulence near the free-surface boundary. Both submergence depth and Reynolds number are also found to influence the dominant free-surface signature and shedding frequencies from the cube. In the interobstacle region (IOR), the variation of Reynolds number and submergence depth is found to have little effect.

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Fig. 1

(a) Simplified representation of the uniformly spaced matrix of cubes, as studied by Meinders and Hanjalic [7] and (b) XY plane view of the grid mesh

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Fig. 2

Comparison of the computed streamwise velocity to the experimental measurements of Meinders and Hanjalic [7]

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Fig. 3

Comparison of computed Reynolds stresses against experimental measurements of Meinders and Hanjalic [7], for Reh = 3584

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Fig. 4

Time-averaged streamline trace around the cube take about the XZ plane for y/h = 2.0 for Reh = 3584 (left) and d/h = 2

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Fig. 5

Time-averaged streamwise and vertical velocity components and mean pressure distributions around the cube along the XZ plane for y/h = 2.0. Results for all cases are plotted.

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Fig. 6

Time-averaged normal Reynolds stress and < u′w′> cross Reynolds stress component along the XZ plane for y/h = 2.0 for Reh = 3584

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Fig. 7

Time-averaged distribution of the fluctuation kinetic energy around the cube about the symmetric plane (left), and XY plane z/h = 0.4 (right) for Reh = 3584

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Fig. 8

Turbulent kinetic production and dissipation along the center XZ plane for Reh = 3584

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Fig. 9

Energy spectrums for Reh = 40,000 (left) and Reh = 3584 (right) plotted at position 2.54x/h in the streamwise direction for d/h = 2.0

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Fig. 10

Instantaneous streamline traces along the frontal face (60% of the face) of a cube in a matrix configuration at various time (dimensionless) intervals for Reh = 3584 and Reh = 40,000

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Fig. 11

Instantaneous streamlines in XZ midplane and fixed time intervals for both Reh = 3584 and Reh = 40,000 at d/h = 2.0

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous vortical structures in the near-wall region (z/h < 0.3) visualized for Q = 130 and for d/h = 2.0

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Fig. 13

Time variation and free-surface interaction of vortical structures viewed about the XZ axes for d/h = 2.0, visualized isosurface value of Q = 130

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Fig. 14

Vortex data acquired over 20 shedding cycles for time that Q > 0, the data are taken across the IOR for Reh = 3584

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Fig. 15

Instantaneous surface plots shown at fixed intervals for d/h = 2.0 at Reh = 3584 and Reh = 40,000



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