0
Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Identification of Pulsation Mechanism in a Transonic Three-Stream Airblast Injector

[+] Author and Article Information
Wayne Strasser

Fellow ASME
Eastman Chemical Company,
Kingsport, TN 37660
e-mail: strasser@eastman.com

Francine Battaglia

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: fbattaglia@vt.edu

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 6, 2015; final manuscript received April 5, 2016; published online July 15, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Paolucci.

J. Fluids Eng 138(11), 111303 (Jul 15, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1540; doi: 10.1115/1.4033422 History: Received August 06, 2015; Revised April 05, 2016

Acoustics and ligament formation within a self-generating and self-sustaining pulsating three-stream injector are analyzed and discussed due to the importance of breakup and atomization of jets for agricultural, chemical, and energy-production industries. An extensive parametric study was carried out to evaluate the effects of simulation numerics and boundary conditions using various comparative metrics. Numerical considerations and boundary conditions made quite significant differences in some parameters, which stress the importance of using documented and consistent numerical discretization recipes when comparing various flow conditions and geometries. Validation exercises confirmed that correct droplet sizes could be produced computationally, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets/ligaments could be quantified, and the trajectory of a droplet intersecting a shock wave could be accurately tracked. Swirl had a minor impact by slightly moving the ligaments away from the nozzle outlet and changing the spray to a hollow cone shape. Often, metrics were synchronized for a given simulation, indicating that a common driving mechanism was responsible for all the global instabilities, namely, liquid bridging and fountain production with shockletlike structures. Interestingly, both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experimental non-Newtonian primary droplet size results, when normalized by distance from the injector, showed an inversely proportional relationship with injector distance. Another important outcome was the ability to apply the models developed to other nozzle geometries, liquid properties, and flow conditions or to other industrial applications.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lefebvre, A. , 1988, Atomization and Sprays, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Kihm, K. D. , and Chigier, N. , 1991, “ Effect of Shock Waves on Liquid Atomization of a Two-Dimensional Airblast Atomizer,” Atomization Sprays, 1(1), pp. 113–136. [CrossRef]
Nourgaliev, R. R. , Liou, M.-S. , and Theofanous, T. G. , 2008, “ Numerical Prediction of Interfacial Instabilities: Sharp Interface Method (SIM),” J. Comput. Phys., 227(8), pp. 3940–3970. [CrossRef]
Xiao, F. , Dianat, M. , and McGuirk, J. J. , 2014, “ LES of Turbulent Liquid Jet Primary Breakup in Turbulent Coaxial Air Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 60, pp. 103–118. [CrossRef]
Zhao, H. , Liu, H.-F. , Xu, J.-L. , Li, W.-F. , and Cheng, W. , 2012, “ Breakup and Atomization of a Round Coal Water Slurry Jet by an Annular Air Jet,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 78, pp. 63–74. [CrossRef]
Kourmatzis, A. , and Masri, A. , 2015, “ Air-Assisted Atomization of Liquid Jets in Varying Levels of Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 764, pp. 95–132. [CrossRef]
Liu, H.-F. , Gong, X. , Li, W.-F. , Wang, F.-C. , and Yu, Z.-H. , 2006, “ Prediction of Droplet Size Distribution in Sprays of Prefilming Air-Blast Atomizers,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 61(6), pp. 1741–1747. [CrossRef]
Senecal, P. K. , Schmidt, D. P. , Nouar, I. , Rutland, C. J. , Reitz, R. D. , and Corradini, M. L. , 1999, “ Modeling High-Speed Viscous Liquid Sheet Atomization,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 25(6–7), pp. 1073–1097. [CrossRef]
Tian, X.-S. , Zhao, H. , Liu, H.-F. , Li, W.-F. , and Xu, J.-L. , 2015, “ Three-Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of Round Liquid Jet Primary Breakup in Coaxial Gas Flow Using the VOF Method,” Fuel Process. Technol., 131, pp. 396–402. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , 2011, “ Towards the Optimization of a Pulsatile Three-Stream Coaxial Airblast Injector,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 37(7), pp. 831–844. [CrossRef]
Strogatz, S. H. , 2014, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Beheshti, N. , and McIntosh, A. C. , 2007, “ The Bombardier Beetle and Its Use of a Pressure Relief Valve System to Deliver a Periodic Pulsed Spray,” Bioinspiration Biomimetics, 2(4), pp. 57–64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Trujillo, F. J. , and Knoerzer, K. , 2011, “ A Computational Modeling Approach of the Jet-Like Acoustic Streaming and Heat Generation Induced by Low Frequency High Power Ultrasonic Horn Reactors,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 18(6), pp. 1263–1273. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lopes, R. J. G. , de Sousa, V. S. L. , and Quinta-Ferreira, R. M. , 2011, “ CFD and Experimental Studies of Reactive Pulsing Flow in Environmentally-Based Trickle-Bed Reactors,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 66(14), pp. 3280–3290. [CrossRef]
Pakhomov, M. , and Terekhov, V. , 2015, “ Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in an Intermittent Turbulent Impinging Round Jet,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 87, pp. 85–93. [CrossRef]
Chigier, N. , and Farago, Z. , 1992, “ Morphological Classification of Disintegration of Round Liquid Jets in a Coaxial Air Stream,” Atomization Sprays, 2(2), pp. 137–153. [CrossRef]
Gatski, T. B. , and Bonnet, J.-P. , 2013, Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Sen, A. K. , Darabi, J. , and Knapp, D. R. , 2011, “ Analysis of Droplet Generation in Electrospray Using a Carbon Fiber Based Microfluidic Emitter,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(7), p. 071301. [CrossRef]
Ishii, E. , Ishikawa, M. , Sukegawa, Y. , and Yamada, H. , 2011, “ Secondary-Drop-Breakup Simulation Integrated With Fuel-Breakup Simulation Near Injector Outlet,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(8), p. 081302. [CrossRef]
Ali, M. , Umemura, A. , and Islam, M. Q. , 2012, “ A Numerical Investigation on Dynamics and Breakup of Liquid Sheet,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(10), p. 101303. [CrossRef]
Farvardin, E. , and Dolatabadi, A. , 2013, “ Numerical Simulation of the Breakup of Elliptical Liquid Jet in Still Air,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(7), p. 071302. [CrossRef]
Wahba, E. M. , Gadalla, M. A. , Abueidda, D. , Dalaq, A. , Hafiz, H. , Elawadi, K. , and Issa, R. , 2014, “ On the Performance of Air-Lift Pumps: From Analytical Models to Large Eddy Simulation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(11), p. 111301. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, R. A. , 2015, “ Recent Advances in Physics of Fluid Parametric Sloshing and Related Problems,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(9), p. 090801. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , and Wonders, A. , 2012, “ Hydrokinetic Optimization of Commercial Scale Slurry Bubble Column Reactor,” AICHE J., 58(3), pp. 946–956. [CrossRef]
Lian, C. , and Merkle, C. L. , 2011, “ Contrast Between Steady and Time-Averaged Unsteady Combustion Simulations,” Comput. Fluids, 44(1), pp. 328–338. [CrossRef]
Deshpande, S. S. , Anumolu, L. , and Trujillo, M. F. , 2012, “ Evaluating the Performance of the Two-Phase Flow Solver InterFoam,” Comput. Sci. Discovery, 5(1), p. 014016. [CrossRef]
Liovic, P. , and Lakehal, D. , 2012, “ Subgrid-Scale Modelling of Surface Tension Within Interface Tracking-Based Large Eddy and Interface Simulation of 3D interfacial flows,” Comput. Fluids, 63, pp. 27–46. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , 2008, “ Discrete Particle Study of Turbulence Coupling in a Confined Jet Gas–Liquid Separator,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(1), p. 011101. [CrossRef]
Brackbill, J. , Kothe, D. B. , and Zemach, C. , 1992, “ A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension,” J. Comput. Phys., 100(2), pp. 335–354. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. R. , 1994, “ Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications,” AIAA J., 32(8), pp. 1598–1605. [CrossRef]
Shih, T.-H. , Liou, W. , Shabbir, A. , Yang, Z. , and Zhu, J. , 1994, “ A New k-Epsilon Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows: Model Development and Validation,” Report No. 19950005029.
ANSYS, 2013, “ Solver Documentation,” ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Hänsch, S. , Lucas, D. , Höhne, T. , Krepper, E. , and Montoya, G. , 2013, “ Comparative Simulations of Free Surface Flows Using VOF-Methods and a New Approach for Multi-Scale Interfacial Structures,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2013-16104.
Egorov, Y. , 2004, “ Contact Condensation in Stratified Steam-Water Flow,” Validation of CFD Codes With PTS-Relevant Test Cases, EVOL-ECORA D 07, Contract No. FIKS-CT-2001-00154.
Deendarlianto, A. , Höhne, T. , Apanasevich, P. , Lucas, D. , Vallée, C. , and Beyer, M. , 2012, “ Application of a New Drag Coefficient Model at CFD-Simulations on Free Surface Flows Relevant for the Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis,” Ann. Nucl. Energy, 39(1), pp. 70–82. [CrossRef]
Dhakal, T. P. , Walters, D. K. , and Strasser, W. , 2014, “ Numerical Study of Gas-Cyclone Airflow: An Investigation of Turbulence Modelling Approaches,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 28(1–2), pp. 1–15. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , 2009, “ Cyclone-Ejector Coupling and Optimisation,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn. Int. J., 10(1), pp. 19–31. [CrossRef]
Dhakal, T. P. , and Walters, D. K. , 2011, “ A Three-Equation Variant of the SST kω Model Sensitized to Rotation and Curvature Effects,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(11), p. 111201. [CrossRef]
Launder, B. , Reece, G. J. , and Rodi, W. , 1975, “ Progress in the Development of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Closure,” J. Fluid Mech., 68(3), pp. 537–566. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , and Vasquez, S. A. , 2012, “ Numerical Simulation of Steady and Unsteady Compressible Multiphase Flows,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2012-87928.
Baharanchi, A. A. , Darus, A. N. , Ansari, M. , and Baharanchi, E. A. , 2012, “ An Optimum Method of Capturing Interface and a Threshold Weber Number for Inclusion of Surface Tension Force in Simulation of Nozzle Internal Flow in Pressure Swirl Atomizers,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2012-87128.
Menard, T. , Tanguy, S. , and Berlemont, A. , 2007, “ Coupling Level Set/VOF/Ghost Fluid Methods: Validation and Application to 3D Simulation of the Primary Break-Up of a Liquid Jet,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 33(5), pp. 510–524. [CrossRef]
Anumolu, L. , and Trujillo, M. F. , 2013, “ Gradient Augmented Reinitialization Scheme for the Level Set Method,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 73(12), pp. 1011–1041.
Youngs, D. L. , 1982, “ Time-Dependent Multi-Material Flow With Large Fluid Distortion,” Numer. Methods Fluid Dyn., 24, pp. 273–285.
Cummins, S. J. , Francois, M. M. , and Kothe, D. B. , 2005, “ Estimating Curvature From Volume Fractions,” Comput. Struct., 83(6), pp. 425–434. [CrossRef]
Rider, W. J. , and Kothe, D. B. , 1998, “ Reconstructing Volume Tracking,” J. Comput. Phys., 141(2), pp. 112–152. [CrossRef]
Gueyffier, D. , Li, J. , Nadim, A. , Scardovelli, R. , and Zaleski, S. , 1999, “ Volume-of-Fluid Interface Tracking With Smoothed Surface Stress Methods for Three-Dimensional Flows,” J. Comput. Phys., 152(2), pp. 423–456. [CrossRef]
Liovic, P. , 2014, “ Towards 3D Volume-of-Fluid Methods Featuring Subgrid-Scale Capturing of Interface Curvature,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2014-21968.
Liovic, P. , and Lakehal, D. , 2007, “ Interface-Turbulence Interactions in Large-Scale Bubbling Processes,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 28(1), pp. 127–144. [CrossRef]
Liovic, P. , and Lakehal, D. , 2007, “ Multi-Physics Treatment in the Vicinity of Arbitrarily Deformable Gas–Liquid Interfaces,” J. Comput. Phys., 222(2), pp. 504–535. [CrossRef]
Vallee, C. , Hoehne, T. , Prasser, H.-M. , and Suehnel, T. , 2008, “ Experimental Investigation and CFD Simulation of Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow Phenomena,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 238(3), pp. 637–646. [CrossRef]
Navarro-Martinez, S. , 2014, “ Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Atomization With a Probability Density Function Method,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 63, pp. 11–22. [CrossRef]
Banerjee, R. , 2013, “ Numerical Investigation of Evaporation of a Single Ethanol/Iso-Octane Droplet,” Fuel, 107, pp. 724–739. [CrossRef]
Harvie, D. J. E. , Davidson, M. R. , and Rudman, M. , 2006, “ An Analysis of Parasitic Current Generation in Volume of Fluid Simulations,” Appl. Math. Modell., 30(10), pp. 1056–1066. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , 2007, “ CFD Investigation of Gear Pump Mixing Using Deforming/Agglomerating Mesh,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129(4), pp. 476–484. [CrossRef]
Ng, C.-L. , and Sallam, K. , 2011, “ Simulation of Laminar Liquid Jets in Gaseous Crossflow Before the Onset of Primary Breakup,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2011-65338.
Barth, T. J. , and Jespersen, D. C. , 1989, “ The Design and Application of Upwind Schemes on Unstructured Meshes,” Paper No. 89-0366.
Kim, S.-E. , Makarov, B. , and Caraeni, D. , 2003, “ A Multi-Dimensional Linear Reconstruction Scheme for Arbitrary Unstructured Grids,” AIAA Paper No. 3990.
Poe, N. M. W. , and Walters, D. K. , 2012, “ A Nonlocal Convective Flux Limiter for Upwind-Biased Finite Volume Simulations,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 70(9), pp. 1103–1117. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. , 2012, “ Best Practice: Scale-Resolving Simulations in ANSYS CFD,” ANSYS Documentation, Canonsburg, PA.
Katz, A. , and Sankaran, V. , 2011, “ Mesh Quality Effects on the Accuracy of CFD Solutions on Unstructured Meshes,” J. Comput. Phys., 230(20), pp. 7670–7686. [CrossRef]
Cotton, M. , 2007, “ Resonant Responses in Periodic Turbulent Flows: Computations Using a k–∊ Eddy Viscosity Model,” J. Hydraul. Res., 45(1), pp. 54–61. [CrossRef]
Tian, X.-S. , Zhao, H. , Liu, H.-F. , Li, W.-F. , and Xu, J.-L. , 2014, “ Effect of Central Tube Thickness on Wave Frequency of Coaxial Liquid Jet,” Fuel Process. Technol., 119, pp. 190–197. [CrossRef]
Tavangar, S. , Hashemabadi, S. H. , and Saberimoghadam, A. , 2015, “ CFD Simulation for Secondary Breakup of Coal-Water Slurry Drops Using OpenFOAM,” Fuel Process. Technol., 132, pp. 153–163. [CrossRef]
Gritskevich, M. S. , Garbaruk, A. V. , Frank, T. , and Menter, F. R. , 2014, “ Investigation of the Thermal Mixing in a T-Junction Flow With Different SRS Approaches,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 279, pp. 83–90. [CrossRef]
Aliseda, A. , Hopfinger, E. J. , Lasheras, J. C. , Kremer, D. M. , Berchielli, A. , and Connolly, E. K. , 2008, “ Atomization of Viscous and Non-Newtonian Liquids by a Coaxial, High-Speed Gas Jet. Experiments and Droplet Size Modeling,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 34(2), pp. 161–175. [CrossRef]
Mansour, A. , and Chigier, N. , 1995, “ Air-Blast Atomization of Non-Newtonian Liquids,” J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 58(2), pp. 161–194. [CrossRef]
Tsai, S. C. , Ghazimorad, K. , and Viers, B. , 1991, “ Airblast Atomization of Micronized Coal Slurries Using a Twin-Fluid Jet Atomizer,” Fuel, 70(4), pp. 483–490. [CrossRef]
Chauvin, A. , Jourdan, G. , Daniel, E. , Houas, L. , and Tosello, R. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation of the Propagation of a Planar Shock Wave Through a Two-Phase Gas–Liquid Medium,” Phys. Fluids, 23(11), p. 113301. [CrossRef]
Gelfand, B. E. , 1996, “ Droplet Breakup Phenomena in Flows With Velocity Lag,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 22(3), pp. 201–265. [CrossRef]
Hsiang, L. P. , and Faeth, G. M. , 1992, “ Near-Limit Drop Deformation and Secondary Breakup,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 18(5), pp. 635–652. [CrossRef]
Pfahl, U. , Fieweger, K. , Adomeit, G. , and Gelfand, B. , 1996, “ Shock-Tube Investigations of Atomization, Evaporation, and Ignition of n-Decane and ct-Methylnaphthalene Droplets,” 20th Meeting Symposium on Shock Waves, pp. 1027–1032.
Ranger, A. A. , and Nicholls, J. A. , 1969, “ Aerodynamic Shattering of Liquid Drops,” AIAA J., 7(2), pp. 285–290. [CrossRef]
Ranger, A. A. , and Nicholls, J. A. , 1972, “ Atomization of Liquid Droplets in a Convective Gas Stream,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 15(6), pp. 1203–1211. [CrossRef]
Pirozzoli, S. , and Grasso, F. , 2004, “ Direct Numerical Simulations of Isotropic Compressible Turbulence: Influence of Compressibility on Dynamics and Structures,” Phys. Fluids, 16(12), pp. 4386–4407. [CrossRef]
Freund, J. B. , Lele, S. K. , and Moin, P. , 2000, “ Compressibility Effects in a Turbulent Annular Mixing Layer—Part 1: Turbulence and Growth Rate,” J. Fluid Mech., 421, pp. 229–267. [CrossRef]
Batley, G. A. , McIntosh, A. C. , and Brindley, J. , 1996, “ Baroclinic Distortion of Laminar Flames,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 452(1945), pp. 199–221. [CrossRef]
Olson, B. J. , and Cook, A. W. , 2007, “ Rayleigh–Taylor Shock Waves,” Phys. Fluids, 19(12), p. 128108. [CrossRef]
Strasser, W. , and Chamoun, G. , 2014, “ Wall Temperature Considerations in a Two-Stage Swirl Non-Premixed Furnace,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn., Int. J., 14(6), pp. 386–397. [CrossRef]
Vanierschot, M. , and Van den Buick, E. , 2008, “ The Influence of Swirl on the Reattachment Length in an Abrupt Axisymmetric Expansion,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(1), pp. 75–82. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry and mesh for three-stream injector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Time-averaged spray profiles from axisymmetric air–water simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sample instantaneous volume fraction contours CICSAM Case A10; blue represents water, while red represents gas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Injector silver model for testing shape length scale quantification

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

CFD results compared to experimental results of non-Newtonian primary atomization from Aliseda et al. [66]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Vector plot colored by Mach number of a normal shock wave in air just having passed over a single droplet of water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Dimensionless lateral trajectory of a droplet having been exposed to a shock wave

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Sample instantaneous contours from nonswirl (left, case A19) and swirl (right, case A7) flows showing the swirl opening of the spray from axisymmetric air–water simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Typical time sequence using volume fraction contours from axisymmetric air–water simulations (case A5), starting from top-left and proceeding to bottom-right. The number near the top of each frame represents the approximate time (t/H) that frame captures in a given cycle, starting with 0 for the upper left-hand frame.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Instantaneous contours at t/H = 0.3 of volume fraction, pressure front, and Mach number from axisymmetric air–water simulations (case A5). The cycle time is just before the bridge forms. The left image is volume fraction (blue = liquid and red = gas), the middle shows the resulting pressure front (purposely undisclosed, red = high and blue = low), and the right image provides Mach number contours (blue = 0, while red designates ≥ 1).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Mach number contours at time samples from three uncorrelated cycles from axisymmetric air–water simulations (case A5). The cycle time is close to t/H = 0.3 just before the bridge forms upstream of the nozzle outer face. The dotted line shows a very slight cycle time progression from left to right.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Instantaneous contours showing Mach number (left) scaled from blue = 0.0 to red ≥ 1.0 and the ratio of negative dilatation to vorticity magnitude (right, same time sample) scaled from blue = 0.0 to red = 1.0 at the same time instant from axisymmetric air–water simulations (case A5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Swirl-inducing mechanism examples; lower figure is colored by undisclosed pressure from low (blue) to red (high)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In