Technical Brief

Correlations of Bubble Diameter and Frequency for Air–Water System Based on Orifice Diameter and Flow Rate

[+] Author and Article Information
Hasan B. Al Ba'ba'a

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Avenue,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: halbabaa@uwm.edu

Tarek Elgammal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Avenue,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: elgammal@uwm.edu

Ryoichi S. Amano

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee,
115 East Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 5, 2015; final manuscript received May 7, 2016; published online July 15, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 138(11), 114501 (Jul 15, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1382; doi: 10.1115/1.4033749 History: Received June 05, 2015; Revised May 07, 2016

Prediction correlations of air bubble diameter and frequency in stagnant clean water were established. Eleven different orifice diameters were tested under flow rate of 0.05–0.15 SLPM. The resulted bubble size and frequency were traced using high-speed camera. It was found that the mean Sauter diameter and bubble frequency are in the range of 3.7–6.9 mm and 6.4–47.2 bubbles per second, respectively. Nonlinear regression was performed to design the new correlations of estimating diameter and frequency with a correlation factor of 0.93 and 0.94, respectively. Flow rate and orifice size had the highest impact on the studied parameters.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: A—control valve, B—digital mass flow meter, C—light source, D—single orifice setup, E—glass tank, and F—high-speed camera

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Measured and predicted values comparison for bubble size

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measured and predicted values comparison for bubble frequency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Captured images of bubble formation for 0.30 mm orifice under a flow rate of (a) 0.050 SLPM, (b) 0.100 SLPM, and (c) 0.15 SLPM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Captured images of bubble formation at a flow rate of qm = 0.050 SLPM for an orifice size of (a) 0.20 mm, (b) 0.41 mm, and (c) 0.61 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison between Eq. (10) with reported literature at a flow rate of (a) 0.050 SLPM, (b) 0.1 SLPM, and (c) 0.15 SLPM and different orifice sizes



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