0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

A Modeling Approach to Study the Fluid-Dynamic Forces Acting on the Spool of a Flow Control Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Emma Frosina

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Naples Federico II,
Via Claudio 21,
Naples 80125, Italy
e-mail: emma.frosina@unina.it

Adolfo Senatore

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Naples Federico II,
Via Claudio 21,
Naples 80125, Italy
e-mail: senatore@unina.it

Dario Buono

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Naples Federico II,
Via Claudio 21,
Naples 80125, Italy
e-mail: darbuono@unina.it

Kim A. Stelson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street S.E.,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: kstelson@umn.edu

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 30, 2015; final manuscript received July 17, 2016; published online October 18, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Alfredo Soldati.

J. Fluids Eng 139(1), 011103 (Oct 18, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1960; doi: 10.1115/1.4034418 History: Received December 30, 2015; Revised July 17, 2016

This paper introduces an approach to study a valve's internal fluid dynamics. During operation, the flow causes forces on the spool. These forces must be correctly balanced. Since these forces cannot be measured, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling approach is needed. A case study has been undertaken to verify the approach on a two-way pressure compensated flow control valve. Since forces vary during operation, the analysis must be transient. From the initial zero spool position, the flow goes through the valve causing a spool shift inside the valve's housing until the spool stops at its final position. Forces depend on the spring reaction, the inlet pressure force, the pressure force of the fluid inside the spool, and the spring holder volumes, and the balance of forces influences the outlet flow rate at the final spool position. First, the initial case geometry was modeled, prototyped, and tested, and this geometry was studied to verify the model accuracy compared to experimental data. The comparison shows good agreement with a maximum error of 3%. With the same approach, several other geometries were designed, but only the best geometry was prototyped and tested. The model was adopted to make several analyses of velocity contouring, streamlines trends, and pressure distribution in the fluid volume. The modeled and tested results achieved the expected performance confirming the effectiveness of the methodology.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Senatore, A., Buono, D., Frosina, E., Pavanetto, M., Costin, I. J., and Olivetti, M. , 2014, “ Improving the Position Control Performance of a Proportional Spool Valve, Using a 3D CFD Modeling,” International Fluid Power Exposition IFPE, Las Vegas, NV, 29(2), pp. 1–11.
Ivantysynova, M. , and Ivatysyn, J. , 2001, Hydrostatic Pumps and Motors, Akademic Books International, New Delhi, India.
Fitch, E. C. , and Homg, I. T. , 2004, Hydraulic Component Design and Selection, Bardyne, Stillwater, OK.
Akers, A. , Gassman, M. , and Smith, R. , 2006, Hydraulic Power System Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Weaver, D. S. , Adubi, F. A. , and Kouwen, N. , 1978, “ Flow Induced Vibrations of a Hydraulic Valve and Their Elimination,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 100(2), pp. 239–245. [CrossRef]
Plau-Salvador, G. , Gonzalez-Altozano, P. , and Arviza-Valverde, J. , 2008, “ Three-Dimensional Modeling and Geometrical Influence on the Hydraulic Performance of a Control Valve,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(1), p. 0111021.
Sibilla, S. , and Gallati, M. , 2008, “ Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Nozzle Check Valve by Numerical Simulation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(12), p. 121101. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, M. D. , Tan, Y. A. , and Lan, X. , 2005, “ Optimization of a Hydraulic Valve Design Using CFD Analysis,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3633.
Yang, R. , 2005, “ Predicting Hydraulic Valve Pressure Drop Using CFD,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3635.
Miller, R. , Fuji, Y. , McCallum, J. , Strumolo, G. , Tober, W. , and Pritts, C. , 1999, “ CFD Simulation of Steady-State Flow Forces on Spool-Type Hydraulic Valves,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1058.
Roemer, D. B. , Johansen, P. , Pedersen, H. C. , and Andersen, T. O. , 2015, “ Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves,” ASME Paper No. FPMC2015-9594, pp. V001T01A049.
Amirante, R. , Moscatelli, P. G. , and Catalano, L. A. , 2007, “ Evaluation of the Flow Forces on a Direct (Single Stage) Proportional Valve by Means of a Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis,” Energy Convers. Manage., 48(3), pp. 942–953. [CrossRef]
Amirante, R. , Catalano, L. A. , and Tamburrano, P. , 2014, “ The Importance of a Full 3D Fluid Dynamic Analysis to Evaluate the Flow Forces in a Hydraulic Directional Proportional Valve,” Eng. Comput., 31(5), pp. 898–922. [CrossRef]
Lee, G. S. , Sung, H. J. , and Kim, H. C. , 2013, “ Multiphysics Analysis of a Linear Control Solenoid Valve,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(1), p. 011104. [CrossRef]
Lee, G. S. , Sung, H. J. , Kim, H. C. , and Lee, H. W. , 2010, “ Flow Force Analysis of a Variable Force Solenoid Valve for Automatic Transmissions,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132(3), p. 031103. [CrossRef]
Lisowski, E. , Czyzycki, W. , and Rajda, J. , 2013, “ Three Dimensional CFD Analysis and Experimental Test of Flow Force Acting on the Spool of Solenoid Operated Directional Control Valve,” Energy Convers. Manage., 70, pp. 220–229. [CrossRef]
Amirante, R. , Del Vescovo, G. , and Lippolis, A. , 2006, “ Flow Forces Analysis of an Open Center Hydraulic Directional Control Valve Sliding Spool,” Energy Convers. Manage.,” 47(1), pp. 114–131. [CrossRef]
Amirante, R. , Catalano, L. A. , Tamburrano, P. , and Poloni, L. A. , 2014, “ Fluid-Dynamic Design Optimization of Hydraulic Proportional Directional Valves,” Eng. Optim., 46(10), pp. 1295–1314. [CrossRef]
Manring, N. D. , 2004, “ Modeling Spool-Valve Flow Force,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2004-59038.
Manring, N. D. , and Zhang, S. , 2011, “ Pressure Transient Flow Forces for Hydraulic Spool Valves,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 134(3), p. 034501. [CrossRef]
Gamboa, A. R. , Morris, C. J. , and Forster, F. K. , 2004, “ Improvements in Fixed-Valve Micropump Performance Through Shape Optimization of Valves,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(2), pp. 339–346. [CrossRef]
Rannow, M. B. , and Li, P. Y. , 2012, “ Soft Switching Approach to Reducing Transition Losses in an On/Off Hydraulic Valve,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 134(6), p. 064501. [CrossRef]
Senatore, A. , Buono, D. , Frosina, F. , Arnone, L. , Santato, L. , Monterosso, F. , and Olivetti, M. , 2013, “ A Tridimensional CFD Analysis of the Lubrication Circuit of a Non-Road Application Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2013-24-0130.
Frosina, E. , Senatore, A. , Buono, D. , and Olivetti, M. , 2014, “ A Tridimensional CFD Analysis of the Oil Pump of a High Performance Motorbike Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1712.
Ding, H. , Visser, F. C. , Jiang, Y. , and Furmanczyk, M. , 2011, “ Demonstration and Validation of a 3D CFD Simulation Tool Predicting Pump Performance and Cavitation for Industrial Applications,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(1), p. 011101. [CrossRef]
Ding, H. , Lu, X. J. , and Jiang, B. , 2012, “ A CFD Model for Orbital Gerotor Motor,” IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science, 15(6), p. 062006.
Launder, B. E. , and Spalding, D. B. , 1974, “ The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 3(2), pp. 269–289. [CrossRef]
Singhal, A. K. , Athavale, M. M. , Li, H. Y. , and Jiang, Y. , 2002, “ Mathematical Basis and Validation of the Full Cavitation Model,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124(3), pp. 617–624. [CrossRef]
Zhang, D. , Perng, C. Y. , and Laverty, M. , 2006, “ Gerotor Oil Pump Performance and Flow/Pressure Ripple Study,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-0359.
Simerics, 2016, “ Pumplinx® User Manual,” Simerics, Inc., Seattle, WA, http://www.simerics.com
Frosina, E. , Senatore, A. , Buono, D. , and Olivetti, M. , 2014, “ A Tridimensional CFD Analysis of the Oil Pump of an High Performance Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1712.
Schleihs, C. , Viennet, E. , Deeken, M. , Ding, H. , Xia, Y. , Lowry, S. , and Murrenhoff, H. , 2014, “ 3D-CFD Simulation of an Axial Piston Displacement Unit,” IFK—The 9th International Fluid Power Conference, Aachen, Germany, March 24–26.
Launder, B. E. , and Spalding, D. B. , 1974, “ The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 3(2), pp. 269–289. [CrossRef]
Blackburn, J. F. , Reethof, G. , and Shearer, J. L. , 1960, Fluid Power Control, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Merritt, H. E. , 1967, Hydraulic Control Systems, Wiley, New York.
Jiang, Y. , Furmanczyk, M. , Lowry, S. , Zhang, D. , and Perng, C. Y. , 2008, “ A Three-Dimensional Design Tool for Crescent Oil Pumps,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-0003.
Buono, D. , Senatore, A. , Prati, M. , and Manganelli, M. , 2012, “ Analysis of the Cooling Plant of a High Performance Motorbike Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0354.
Jiang, Y. , and Perng, C. , 1997, “ An Efficient 3D Transient Computational Model for Vane Oil Pump and Gerotor Oil Pump Simulations,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970841.
Wang, D. , Ding, H. , Jiang, Y. , and Xiang, X. , 2012, “ Numerical Modeling of Vane Oil Pump With Variable Displacement,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0637.
Ding, H. , Lu, X. J. , and Jiang, B. , 2012, “ A CFD Model for Orbital Gerotor Motor,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., 15(6), p. 062006. [CrossRef]
Ding, H. , Visser, F. C. , and Jiang, Y. , 2012, “ A Practical Approach to Speed up NPSHR Prediction of Centrifugal Pumps Using CFD Cavitation Model,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2012-72282.
Hsieh, C. F. , 2012, “ Fluid and Dynamics Analyses of a Gerotor Pump Using Various Span Angle Designs,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(12), p. 121003. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, C. F. , 2015, “ Flow Characteristics of Gerotor Pumps With Novel Variable Clearance Designs,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(4), p. 041107. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, C. F. , 2015, “ A New Curve for Application to the Rotor Profile of Rotary Lobe Pumps,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 87, pp. 70–81. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, C. F. , 2015, “ Flow Characteristics of Roots Pumps With Multistage Designs by CFD Investigation,” Mech. Ind., 16(6), pp. 601-1–601-11.
Hsieh, C. F. , and Zhou, Q. J. , 2015, “ Fluid Analysis of Cylindrical and Screw Type Roots Vacuum Pumps,” Vacuum, 121, pp. 274–282. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, C. F. , and Deng, Y. C. , 2015, “ A Design Method for Improving the Flow Characteristics of a Multistage Roots Pumps,” Vacuum, 121, pp. 217–222. [CrossRef]
Senatore, A. , Cardone, M. , Buono, D. , and Dominici, A. , 2007, “ Fluid-Dynamic Analysis of a High Performance Engine Lubricant Circuit,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-1963.
Frosina, E. , Buono, D. , Senatore, A. , and Costin, I. J. , 2016, “ A Simulation Methodology Applied on Hydraulic Valves for High Fluxes,” International Review on Modelling and Simulations IREMOS, 9(3), pp. 217–226.
Rane, S. , Kovacevic, A. , Stosic, N. , and Kethidi, M. , 2014, “ Deforming Grid Generation and CFD Analysis of Variable Geometry Screw Compressors,” Comput. Fluids, 99, pp. 124–141. [CrossRef]
Kovacevic, A. , Rane, S. , Stosic, N. , Jiang, Y. , Lowry, S. , and Furmanczyk, M. , 2014, “ Influence of Approaches in CFD Solvers on Performance Prediction in Screw Compressors,” 22nd International Compressor Engineering Conference, Paper No. 1124, pp. 1–10.
Frosina, E. , Senatore, A. , Buono, D. , and Stelson, K. A. , 2016, “ A Mathematical Model to Analyze the Torque Caused by Fluid-Solid Interaction on a Hydraulic Valve,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(6), p. 061103. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Valve computer-aided design (CAD) 3D

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Binary tree mesh: (a) valve section, (b) spool and body, and (c) moving mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mesh sensitivity analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Test bench hydraulic scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Pressure distribution in the fluid volume: (a) valve section and (b) all fluid volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Typical streamline colored by velocity magnitude inside some spool fluid volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental/model results comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) New valve design and (b) new spool design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Second geometry modification on the spool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Streamlines inside the fluid volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure distribution: (a) in a valve section and (b) in the valve fluid volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Pressure inside the top and bottom spool areas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Valve fluid volume—forces study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Spool shift versus time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Spool net fluid on the spool versus time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Experimental/model results comparison, case 3

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In