0
Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Pressure Drop Through Orifices for Single- and Two-Phase Vertically Upward Flow—Implication for Metering

[+] Author and Article Information
Ammar Zeghloul, Faiza Saidj, Abdelkader Messilem

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Sciences and Technology
Houari Boumedien,
BP 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algeria

Abdelwahid Azzi

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Sciences and Technology
Houari Boumedien,
BP 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algeria
e-mail: aazzi@mail.com

Barry James Azzopardi

Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 24, 2016; final manuscript received September 14, 2016; published online January 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 139(3), 031302 (Jan 19, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1325; doi: 10.1115/1.4034758 History: Received May 24, 2016; Revised September 14, 2016

Pressure drop has been measured for upward single- and two-phase gas–liquid flow across an orifice in a vertical pipe. A conductance probe provided average void fraction upstream of the orifice. Six orifices with different apertures/thickness were mounted in turn in a 34 mm diameter transparent acrylic resin pipe. Gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0–4 m/s and 0.3–0.91 m/s, respectively, were studied. For single-phase flow, pressure drop, expressed as an Euler number, was seen to be independent of Reynolds number in turbulent region. The Euler number increased with decreasing the open area ratio/orifice thickness and increasing velocity. The pressure drop was well predicted by the correlation of Idel'chik et al. (1994, Handbook of Hydraulic Resistances, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca, Raton, FL.), which uses a form of Euler number. The corresponding two-phase flow pressure drop depends on the flow pattern. Decreasing open area ratio/orifice thickness increased the pressure drop. For a given liquid superficial velocity, the pressure drop increases with gas superficial velocity except for low open area ratio where this increase is followed by a decrease beyond a critical superficial gas velocity for the high liquid superficial velocities. Relevant correlations were assessed using the present data via a systematic statistical approach. The two-phase multiplier equations of Morris (1985, “Two-Phase Pressure Drop Across Valves and Orifice Plates,” European Two Phase Flow Group Meeting, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Southampton, UK.) and Simpson et al. (1983, “Two-Phase Flow Through Gate Valves and Orifice Plates,” International Conference on Physical Modelling of Multiphase Flow, Coventry, UK.) are the most reliable ones.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Roul, M. K. , and Dash, S. K. , 2012, “ Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow Through Thin and Thick Orifices in Horizontal Pipes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(9), p. 091301. [CrossRef]
Nemitallah, M. A. , Ben-Mansour, R. , Habib, A. , Ahmed, H. , Toor, H. , Gasem, Z. M. , and Badr, H. M. , 2015, “ Solid Particle Erosion Downstream of an Orifice,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(2), p. 021302. [CrossRef]
Malavasi, S. , and Messa, G. V. , 2011, “ Dissipation and Cavitation Characteristics of Single-Hole Orifices,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(5), p. 051302. [CrossRef]
Idel'chik, I. E. , Malyavskayafs, G. R. , Martynenko, O. G. , and Fried, E. , 1994, Handbook of Hydraulic Resistances, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca, Raton, FL.
Simpson, H. C. , Rooney, D. H. , and Grattan, E. , 1983, “ Two-Phase Flow Through Gate Valves and Orifice Plates,” International Conference on Physical Modelling of Multiphase Flow, Coventry, UK.
Chisholm, D. , 1983, Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines and Heat Exchangers, Longman Group, London.
Morris, S. D. , 1985, “ Two-Phase Pressure Drop Across Valves and Orifice Plates,” European Two Phase Flow Group Meeting, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Southampton, UK.
Fitzsimmons, D. E. , 1964, “ Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Piping Components,” Report Hanford Laboratories, Report No. HW-80970.
Saadawi, A. A. , Grattan, E. , and Dempster, W. M. , 1999, “ Two-Phase Pressure Loss in Orifice Plates and Gate Valves in Large Diameter Pipes,” 1999, Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation, G. P. Celata, P. D. Marco, R. K. Shah, eds., Pisa, Italy.
Watson, G. , Vaughan, V. , and McFarlane, M. W. , 1967, “ Two-Phase Pressure Drop With a Sharp-Edged Orifice,” NEL Report No. 290.
Collins, D. B. , and Gacesa, M. , 1971, “ Measurement of Steam Quality in Two-Phase Up Flow With Venturis and Orifice Plates,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 93(11), pp. 11–21. [CrossRef]
James, R. , 1965, “ Metering of Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow by Sharp-Edged Orifices,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 180(1965), pp. 549–572. [CrossRef]
Fossa, M. , and Guglielmini, G. , 2002, “ Pressure Drop and Void Fraction Profiles During Horizontal Flow Through Thin and Thick Orifices,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26(5), pp. 513–523. [CrossRef]
Smith, J. , 1997, “ Numerical Predictions of Bubbly Two-Phase Flow Through an Orifice,” M.Sc. thesis, Lehigh University, Lehigh, PA.
Shannak, B. , Friedel, L. , Alhusein, M. , and Azzi, A. , 1999, “ Experimental Investigation of Contraction in Single- and Two-Phase Flow Through Sharp-Edged Short Orifice,” Forsch. Ingenieurwes., 64(11), pp. 291–295. [CrossRef]
Shannak, B. , Friedel, L. , and Alhusein, M. , 1999, “ Prediction of Single and Two-Phase Flow Contraction Through a Sharp-Edged Short Orifice,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 22(10), pp. 865–870. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, D. P. , Das, G. , and Das, P. K. , 2009, “ Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through an Orifice,” Chem. Eng. Commun., 196(9), pp. 1117–1129. [CrossRef]
Steven, R. , and Hall, A. , 2009, “ Orifice Plate Wet Meter Gas Flow Performance,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 20(4–5), pp. 141–151. [CrossRef]
Heldig, S. , and Zarrouk, S. J. , 2012, “ Measuring Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Pipelines Using Sharp Edge Orifice Plates,” Geothermics, 44, pp. 52–64. [CrossRef]
Murdock, J. W. , 1962, “ Two-Phase Flow Measurement With Orifices,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 84(4), pp. 419–433. [CrossRef]
Lin, Z. H. , 1982, “ Two-Phase Flow Measurements With Sharp-Edged Orifices,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 8(6), pp. 683–693. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. J. , Lu, S. J. , and Yu, G. Z. , 1992, “ An Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Measurement With Orifices for Low-Quality Mixtures,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 18(1), pp. 149–155. [CrossRef]
Oliveira, J. L. G. , Passos, J. C. , Verschaeren, R. , and van der Geld, C. , 2009, “ Mass Flow Rate Measurements in Gas–Liquid Flows by Means of a Venturi or Orifice Plate Coupled to a Void Fraction Sensor,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 33(2), pp. 253–260. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. J. , Yue, W. T. , and Huang, Z. Y. , 2005, “ Investigation of Oil–Air Two-Phase Mass Flow Rate Measurement Using Venturi and Void Fraction Sensor,” J. Zhejiang Univ., Sci., A, 6(6), pp. 601–606. [CrossRef]
Azzopardi, B. J. , 1984, “ Annular Two Phase Flow in Constricted Tubes,” First National Heat Transfer Conference, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Leeds, UK, July 3–5.
McQuillan, K. W. , and Whalley, P. B. , 1984, “ The Effect of Orifices on the Liquid Distribution in Annular Two-Phase Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 10(6), pp. 721–731. [CrossRef]
Zeghloul, A. , Azzi, A. , Saidj, F. , Azzopardi, B. J. , and Hewakandamby, B. , 2015, “ Interrogating the Effect of an Orifice on the Upward Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Behaviour,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 74, pp. 96–105. [CrossRef]
Azzi, A. , Friedel, L. , and Belaadi, S. , 2000, “ Two-Phase Gas/Liquid Flow Pressure Loss in Bends,” Forsch. Ingenieurwes., 65(10), pp. 309–318. [CrossRef]
Saidj, F. , Kibboua, R. , Azzi, A. , Ababou, N. , and Azzopardi, B. J. , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of Air–Water Two-Phase Flow Through Vertical 90 deg Bend,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 57, pp. 226–234. [CrossRef]
Abdulkadir, M. , Zhao, D. , Azzi, A. , Lowndes, I . S. , and Azzopardi, B. J. , 2012, “ Two Phase Air-Water Flow Through a Large Diameter Vertical 180 deg Bend,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 79, pp. 138–152. [CrossRef]
International Organization for Standardization, 1991, “ Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Pressure Differential Devices—Part 1: Orifice Plates, Nozzles and Venturi Tubes Inserted in Circular Cross-Section Conduits Running Full,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 5167-1.
Costigan, G. , and Whalley, P. B. , 1997, “ Slug Flow Regime Identification From Dynamic Void Fraction Measurements in Vertical Air-Water Flows,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 23(2), pp. 263–282. [CrossRef]
Hewitt, G. F. , and Roberts, D. N. , 1969, “ Studies of Two-Phase Patterns by Simultaneous X-Ray and Flash Photography,” UKAEA Report No. AEREM 2159.
Bennett, A. W. , Hewitt, G. F. , Kearsey, H. A. , Keeys, R. K. , and Lacey, P. M. , 1965, “ Flow Visualization Studies of Boiling at High Pressure,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 180(3), pp. 1–11.
Sharaf, S. , van der Meulen, G. P. , Agunlejika, E. O. , and Azzopardi, B. J. , 2016, “ Structures in Gas–Liquid Churn Flow in a Large Diameter Vertical Pipe,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 78, pp. 88–103. [CrossRef]
Shoham, O. , 2006, Mechanistic Modelling of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Pipes, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX.
Akagawa, K. , Hamaguchi, H. , and Sakaguchi, T. , 1971, “ Studies on the Fluctuation of Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Slug Flow,” Bull. JSME, 14(71), pp. 462–469. [CrossRef]
Sawai, T. , Kaji, M. , Kasugai, T. , Nakashima, H. , and Mori, T. , 2004, “ Gas-Liquid Interfacial Structure and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Churn Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 28(6), pp. 597–606. [CrossRef]
Govan, A. H. , 1988, “ A Note on Statistical Methods for Comparing Measured and Calculated Values,” United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Report No. AERE-M3621.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thin and thick orifices

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Upward pressure drop measurement and purging system arrangement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of Reynolds number on Euler number determined from present measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Deviation of predicted Euler number relative to values from experiments plotted against Reynolds number: (a) momentum equations and (b) equations of Idel'chik et al. [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow pattern map in the vertical pipe before the orifice based on dimensionless numbers, present data (full symbols), experimental flow pattern data of Hewitt and Roberts [33] (empty symbols—air/water, 32 mm diameter pipe—pressure 4 bar) and transition lines adapted from Ref. [33]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Upward two-phase flow pressure drop function of the gas superficial velocities for different liquid superficial velocities (orifices 1 to 6)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Orifice two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier function of the upstream average void fraction (orifices 1 to 6)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental and predicted two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier function of the upstream mass flow quality (orifices 1 to 6)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison between measured and calculated two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier through orifices by models: Morris [7], Simpson et al. [5], Chisholm [6] and homogeneous flow model

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In