Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Pressure Drop Through Orifices for Single- and Two-Phase Vertically Upward Flow—Implication for Metering

[+] Author and Article Information
Ammar Zeghloul, Faiza Saidj, Abdelkader Messilem

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Sciences and Technology
Houari Boumedien,
BP 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algeria

Abdelwahid Azzi

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Sciences and Technology
Houari Boumedien,
BP 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algeria
e-mail: aazzi@mail.com

Barry James Azzopardi

Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 24, 2016; final manuscript received September 14, 2016; published online January 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 139(3), 031302 (Jan 19, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1325; doi: 10.1115/1.4034758 History: Received May 24, 2016; Revised September 14, 2016

Pressure drop has been measured for upward single- and two-phase gas–liquid flow across an orifice in a vertical pipe. A conductance probe provided average void fraction upstream of the orifice. Six orifices with different apertures/thickness were mounted in turn in a 34 mm diameter transparent acrylic resin pipe. Gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0–4 m/s and 0.3–0.91 m/s, respectively, were studied. For single-phase flow, pressure drop, expressed as an Euler number, was seen to be independent of Reynolds number in turbulent region. The Euler number increased with decreasing the open area ratio/orifice thickness and increasing velocity. The pressure drop was well predicted by the correlation of Idel'chik et al. (1994, Handbook of Hydraulic Resistances, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca, Raton, FL.), which uses a form of Euler number. The corresponding two-phase flow pressure drop depends on the flow pattern. Decreasing open area ratio/orifice thickness increased the pressure drop. For a given liquid superficial velocity, the pressure drop increases with gas superficial velocity except for low open area ratio where this increase is followed by a decrease beyond a critical superficial gas velocity for the high liquid superficial velocities. Relevant correlations were assessed using the present data via a systematic statistical approach. The two-phase multiplier equations of Morris (1985, “Two-Phase Pressure Drop Across Valves and Orifice Plates,” European Two Phase Flow Group Meeting, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Southampton, UK.) and Simpson et al. (1983, “Two-Phase Flow Through Gate Valves and Orifice Plates,” International Conference on Physical Modelling of Multiphase Flow, Coventry, UK.) are the most reliable ones.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental facility

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Fig. 2

Thin and thick orifices

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Fig. 3

Upward pressure drop measurement and purging system arrangement

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Fig. 4

Effect of Reynolds number on Euler number determined from present measurements

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Fig. 5

Deviation of predicted Euler number relative to values from experiments plotted against Reynolds number: (a) momentum equations and (b) equations of Idel'chik et al. [4]

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Fig. 6

Flow pattern map in the vertical pipe before the orifice based on dimensionless numbers, present data (full symbols), experimental flow pattern data of Hewitt and Roberts [33] (empty symbols—air/water, 32 mm diameter pipe—pressure 4 bar) and transition lines adapted from Ref. [33]

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Fig. 7

Upward two-phase flow pressure drop function of the gas superficial velocities for different liquid superficial velocities (orifices 1 to 6)

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Fig. 8

Orifice two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier function of the upstream average void fraction (orifices 1 to 6)

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Fig. 9

Experimental and predicted two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier function of the upstream mass flow quality (orifices 1 to 6)

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Fig. 10

Comparison between measured and calculated two-phase flow pressure drop multiplier through orifices by models: Morris [7], Simpson et al. [5], Chisholm [6] and homogeneous flow model




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