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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aerodynamic Performance Prediction of a Profile in Ground Effect With and Without a Gurney Flap

[+] Author and Article Information
Carlo Cravero

Dipartimento DIME,
Università di Genova,
Via Montallegro 1,
Genova 16145, Italy
e-mail: cravero@unige.it

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 13, 2015; final manuscript received October 21, 2016; published online January 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Elias Balaras.

J. Fluids Eng 139(3), 031105 (Jan 20, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1741; doi: 10.1115/1.4035137 History: Received October 13, 2015; Revised October 21, 2016

A very detailed experimental case of a reversed profile in ground effect has been selected in the open literature where available experimental data have been used as reference data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD approach has been used to predict aerodynamic performance of the profile at different distances with respect to the ground: in the freestream case, there is no ground effect whereas in the low height the profile operation is limited by the stall on the suction surface. Moreover, the effect of a Gurney flap addition on flow distribution and performance has been numerically investigated. The experimental data have been used to setup and test the capabilities of the computational approach. With the addition of a Gurney flap, a significant flow unsteadiness is introduced that needs to be considered in the numerical approach. In this case, the configurations investigated are used to highlight the capabilities of CFD using Reynolds-averaged Naiver–Stokes (RANS) approach for its effective application as a tool for the detailed design of aerodynamic components to generate downforce for race cars.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cl variation with flow incidence for the clean profile and with the Gurney flap

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Fig. 2

Unstructured mesh at h/c = 0.090

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Fig. 3

Details of prism layers at the solid walls

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Fig. 4

Mesh around the profile with the Gurney flap and trailing edge detail

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Fig. 5

Effect of mesh refinement at the leading edge on the Cp distribution—freestream case

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Fig. 6

Cl distribution comparison at different h/c

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Fig. 7

Cd distribution comparison at different h/c (CFX-SST) and other authors

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Fig. 8

Cl distribution comparison at different h/c—present work

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Fig. 9

Cd distribution comparison at different h/c—present work (CFX-SST) and other authors

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Fig. 10

Cp distributions around the profile (lines) at different h/c ratios compared to the experimental data (symbols) and velocity contour plots

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Fig. 11

Lift coefficient with the Gurney flap 1.45% at 1.0 deg flow incidence

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Fig. 12

Lift coefficient with the Gurney flap 2.9% at 1.0 deg flow incidence

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Fig. 13

Effect of the Gurney flap on the lift coefficient at different h/c values

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Fig. 14

Effect of the Gurney flap on the drag coefficient at different h/c values

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Fig. 15

Aerodynamic efficiency comparison for the clean wing and with 1.45–2.90% Gurney flaps

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Fig. 16

Pressure coefficient distributions around the profile with the 1.45% Gurney flap at h/c = 0.224 (a) and at h/c = 0.090 (b)

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Fig. 17

Pressure coefficient distributions around the profile at h/c = 0.134 with 1.45–2.90% Gurney flaps

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Fig. 18

Unsteady flow velocities at different monitoring points in the wake region during run

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Fig. 19

Instantaneous vorticity contours and streamlines during the vortex shedding cycle

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Fig. 20

Instantaneous contours of eddy viscosity ratio

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