0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Influence of Freestream Turbulence Intensity on Bypass Transition Parameters in a Boundary Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
Joanna Grzelak

Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery,
ul. Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: jj@imp.gda.pl

Zygmunt Wierciński

Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery,
ul. Fiszera 14,
Gdansk 80-231, Poland
e-mail: zw@imp.gda.pl

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 2, 2015; final manuscript received November 19, 2016; published online March 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: D. Keith Walters.

J. Fluids Eng 139(5), 051201 (Mar 14, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1792; doi: 10.1115/1.4035632 History: Received November 02, 2015; Revised November 19, 2016

An experimental investigation was carried out to study the turbulent flow behind passive grids in a subsonic wind tunnel. The enhanced level of turbulence was generated by five wicker metal grids with square meshes and different parameters (diameter of the grid rod d = 0.3 to 3 mm and the grid mesh size M = 1 to 30 mm). The velocity of the flow was measured by means of a one-dimensional hot-wire probe. For this purpose, skewness, kurtosis, and transverse variation of the velocity fluctuations were determined, obtaining knowledge of the degree of turbulence isotropy and homogeneity in the flow behind grids of variable geometry, for different incoming velocities U = 4, 6, 10, 15, 20 m/s. Approximately, the isotropic and homogeneous turbulence was obtained for x/M > 30. Next, several correlations for turbulence degeneration law were tested. Finally, as the main goal of the study, impact of turbulence intensity on bypass laminar–turbulent transition parameters (transition inception, shape parameter, and the length of the transition region) on a flat plate was investigated. Parameter ITum was created as an integral taken from the leading edge of the plate to the transition inception, divided by the distance from the leading edge to the transition inception, expressing in this way the averaged value of turbulence intensity.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Morkovin, M. V. , 1969, “On the Many Faces of Transition,” Viscous Drag Reduction, C. S. Wells , ed., Plenum, New York, pp. 1–31.
Abu–Ghannam, B. J. , and Shaw, R. , 1980, “Natural Transition of Boundary Layers–The Effects of Turbulence, Pressure Gradient, and Flow History,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 22(5), pp. 213–228. [CrossRef]
Mayle, R. E. , 1991, “The Role of Laminar–Turbulent Transition in Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113(4), pp. 509–537. [CrossRef]
Hourmouziadis, J. , 1989, Aerodynamics Design of Low Pressure Turbines, North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Brussels, Belgium.
Valente, P. C. , and Vassilicos, J. C. , 2011, “The Decay of Turbulence Generated by a Class of Multiscale Grids,” J. Fluid Mech., 687, pp. 300–340. [CrossRef]
Mydlarski, L. , and Warhaft, Z. , 1996, “On the Onset of High-Reynolds-Number Grid-Generated Wind Tunnel Turbulence,” J. Fluid. Mech., 320, pp. 331–368. [CrossRef]
Gad-el-Hak, M. , and Corrsin, S. , 1974, “Measurements of the Nearly Isotropic Turbulence Behind a Uniform Jet Grid,” J. Fluid Mech., 62(01), pp. 115–143. [CrossRef]
Hideharu, M. , 1991, “Realization of a Large-Scale Turbulence Field in a Small Wind Tunnel,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 8(1–4), pp. 53–64. [CrossRef]
Mydlarski, L. , and Warhaft, Z. , 1998, “Passive Scalar Statistics in High-Peclet-Number Grid Turbulence,” J. Fluid. Mech., 358, pp. 135–175. [CrossRef]
Birouk, M. , Sarh, B. , and Gokalp, I. , 2003, “An Attempt to Realize Experimental Isotropic Turbulence at Low Reynolds Number,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 70(1), pp. 325–348. [CrossRef]
Poorte, R. E. G. , and Biesheuvel, A. , 2001, “Experiments on the Motion of Gas Bubbles in Turbulence Generated by an Active Grid,” J. Fluid Mech., 461, pp. 127–154.
Kang, H. S. , Chester, S. , and Meneveau, C. , 2003, “Decaying Turbulence in an Active-Grid-Generated Flow and Comparisons With Large-Eddy Simulation,” J. Fluid Mech., 480, pp. 129–160. [CrossRef]
Obligado, M. , Cartellier, A. , Mininni, P. , Teitelabaum, T. , and Bourgoin, M. , 2014, “Preferential Concentration of Heavy Particles in Turbulence,” J. Turbul., 15(5), pp. 293–310. [CrossRef]
Johnson, M. W. , and Pinarbasi, A. , 2014, “The Effect of Pressure Gradient on Boundary Layer Receptivity,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 93(1), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Kurian, T. , and Fransson, J. H. M. , 2009, “ Grid-Generated Turbulence Revisited,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 41(2), p. 021403. [CrossRef]
Dryden, H. L. , Schubauer, G. B. , Mock, W. C., Jr. , and Skramstad, H. K. , 1937, “Measurements of Intensity and Scale of Wind Tunnel Turbulence and Their Relation to the Critical Reynolds Number of Spheres,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NACA-TR-581.
Hinze, J. O. , 1953, Turbulence, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Batchelor, G. K. , 1953, The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Mohamed, M. S. , and LaRue, J. C. , 1990, “The Decay Power Law in Grid-Generated Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 219, pp. 195–214. [CrossRef]
Ting, D. S. K. , 2013, Some Basics of Engineering Flow Turbulence, revised ed., Naomi Ting's Book, Windsor, ON, Canada.
Jimenez, J. , 1998, “Turbulent Velocity Fluctuations Need to be Gaussian,” J. Fluid Mech., 376, pp. 139–147. [CrossRef]
Tresso, R. , and Munoz, D. R. , 2000, “Homogeneous, Isotropic Flow in Grid Generated Turbulence,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(1), pp. 51–56. [CrossRef]
Fouladi, F. , Henshaw, P. , and Ting, D. S. K. , 2015, “Turbulent Flow Over a Flat Plate Downstream of a Finite Height Perforated Plate,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(2), p. 021203. [CrossRef]
Roach, P. E. , 1986, “The Generation of Nearly Isotropic Turbulence by Means of Grids,” J. Heat Fluid Flow, 8(2), pp. 82–92. [CrossRef]
Baines, W. D. , and Peterson, E. G. , 1951, “An Investigation of Flow Through Screens,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 73, pp. 467–480.
Mikhailova, N. P. , Repik, E. U. , and Sosedko, Y. P. , 2005, “Reynolds Number Effect on the Grid Turbulence Degeneration Law,” Fluid Dyn., 40(5), pp. 714–725. [CrossRef]
Comte–Bellot, G. , and Corrsin, S. , 1966, “The Use of a Contraction to Improve the Isotropy of Grid-Generated Turbulence,” J. Fluid. Mech., 25(04), pp. 657–682. [CrossRef]
Batchelor, G. K. , and Townsend, A. A. , 1948, “Decay of Isotropic Turbulence in the Initial Period,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 193(1035), pp. 539–558. [CrossRef]
Krogstad, P. A. , and Davidson, P. A. , 2010, “Is Grid Turbulence Saffman Turbulence?,” J. Fluid Mech., 642, pp. 373–394. [CrossRef]
George, W. K. , 1988, “The Decay of Homogeneous Turbulence,” Transport Phenomena in Turbulent Flows, M. Hirata , and N. Kasagi , eds., Routledge, New York.
Lavoie, P. , Djenidi, L. , and Antonia, R. A. , 2007, “Effects of Initial Conditions in Decaying Turbulence Generated by Passive Grids,” J. Fluid Mech., 585, pp. 395–420. [CrossRef]
Warhaft, Z. , and Lumley, J. L. , 1978, “The Decay of Temperature Fluctuations and Heat Flux in Grid Generated Turbulence,” Lecture Notes in Physics, Springer–Verlag, Berlin, pp. 113–123.
Torrano, I. , Tutar, M. , Martinez–Agirre, M. , Rouquier, A. , Mordant, N. , and Bourgoin, M. , 2015, “Comparison of Experimental and RANS-Based Numerical Studies of the Decay of Grid-Generated Turbulence,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(6), p. 061203. [CrossRef]
Dhawan, S. , and Narasimha, R. , 1958, “Some Properties of Boundary Layer Flow During the Transition From Laminar to Turbulent Motion,” J. Fluid Mech., 3(4), pp. 418–436. [CrossRef]
Blasius, P. R. H. , 1913, “Das Aehnlichkeitsgesetz bei Reibungsvorgangen in Flüssigkeiten,” Forschungsheft, 131, pp. 1–41.
Townsend, A. A. , 1948, “Local Isotropy in the Turbulent Wake of a Cylinder,” Aust. J. Sci. Res. A: Phys. Sci., 1, pp. 161–174.
Emmons, H. W. , 1951, “The Laminar-Turbulent Transition in a Boundary Layer—Part I,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 18(7), pp. 490–498. [CrossRef]
Wiercinski, Z. , 1997, “The Stochastic Theory of the Natural Laminar-Turbulent Transition in the Boundary Layer,” Transactions of the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, 102, pp. 89–110.
Lipson, C. , and Sheth, N. J. , 1973, Statistical Design and Analysis of Engineering Experiments, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Wadsworth, H. M. , 1989, Handbook of Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Wiercinski, Z. , 1995, “The Measurements of the Intermittency Factor in the Region of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in the Boundary Layer Over a Flat Plate,” Report of the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Science, Gdansk, Poland, Report No. 363/95 (in Polish).
Keller, F. J. , and Wang, T. , 1993, “Effects of Criterion Functions on Intermittency in Heated Transitional Boundary Layers With and Without Streamwise Acceleration,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-067.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Test section of wind tunnel: (a) flat plate (1), grid (2) at the distance Ls from the leading edge, (b) shape of the leading edge, and (c) cross section of the measurement chamber. All dimensions are in millimeters.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Decay power law for grids G1–G5; (a) formula (5), (b) formula (6), and (c) formula (7)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Transverse variation for grids G2, G5 at different distances from the grid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Skewness (a) and kurtosis (b) for grids G1–G5 and different flow velocities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The length of transition ( Re end** −  Ret**) raised to the power α for grids G1–G4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Shape parameter α as a function of ITum (a); Re ** for γ = 0.632 (characteristic length) and γ = 0.95 (transition end) as a function of ITum (b), for grids G1–G4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ret** at the onset of transition as a function of the intensity at the leading edge, for different grids, flow velocities, and grid distances, compared with Mayle (--- • ---), Hourmouziadis (····), and Abu–Ghannam and Shaw (--)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Ret** at the onset of transition as a function of averaged turbulence intensity, for different grids, flow velocities, and grid distances

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Local skin friction coefficients Cf (a), and relative boundary layer thickness δ/x (b) as a function of Rex for grids G1–G4, U = 10 m/s and Ls = 450 mm; solid and dashed lines represent the Blasius [35] laminar and turbulent solutions, respectively

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In