0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Experimental Characterization and Simulation of a Piezo-Actuated Micro Dispensing Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Bastian Bonhoeffer

Novartis Pharma AG,
Technical R&D,
P.O. Box,
Basel CH-4002, Switzerland
e-mail: bastian.bonhoeffer@novartis.com

Marlon Boldrini

Institute of Computational Physics,
Zurich University of Applied Sciences,
P.O. Box,
Winterthur 8401, Switzerland
e-mail: bolm@zhaw.ch

Gernot Boiger

Institute of Computational Physics,
Zurich University of Applied Sciences,
P.O. Box,
Winterthur 8401, Switzerland
e-mail: boig@zhaw.ch

Arno Kwade

Institute of Particle Technology,
TU Braunschweig,
Braunschweig 38106, Germany
e-mail: a.kwade@tu-braunschweig.de

Michael Juhnke

Novartis Pharma AG,
Technical R&D,
P.O. Box,
Basel CH-4002, Switzerland
e-mail: michael.juhnke@novartis.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 14, 2016; published online March 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mhamed Boutaous.

J. Fluids Eng 139(5), 051105 (Mar 20, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1220; doi: 10.1115/1.4035634 History: Received April 06, 2016; Revised December 14, 2016

The dispensing behavior of a piezo-actuated micro-valve that closes the gap between the nanoliter range (e.g., inkjet technology) and the microliter range (e.g., standard displacement technology) has been investigated by experimental and numerical means. Water and different Newtonian model fluids with defined fluid properties were utilized for experimental characterization. The dispensed amount per single dispensing event could be freely adjusted from a few nanoliters to several hundred microliters showing the large working range and flexibility of the micro-valve, while maintaining a high accuracy with a low relative standard deviation. A correlation between fluid properties, dispensing parameters, and the resulting steady-state mass flow was established, showing good consistency of the experimental data. Furthermore, a three-dimensional numerical model for the quantitative simulation of the micro-valve's dispensing behavior regarding fluid mass flow was developed and validated, showing a high degree of correspondence between the experiments and simulations. Investigations of the transient behavior after the opening of the micro-valve revealed a nonlinear relationship between the valve opening time and dispensed mass for short opening times. This behavior was dependent on the working pressure but independent of the type of fluid.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Koltay, P. , Steger, R. , Birkle, G. , Huang, H.-C. , Sandmaier, H. , and Zengerle, R. , 2001, “ Microdispenser Array for Highly Parallel and Accurate Liquid Handling,” SPIE, pp. 195–203.
Bammesberger, S. , Ernst, A. , Losleben, N. , Tanguy, L. , Zengerle, R. , and Koltay, P. , 2013, “ Quantitative Characterization of Non-Contact Microdispensing Technologies for the sub-Microliter Range,” Drug Discovery Today, 18(9–10), pp. 435–446. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Derby, B. , 2010, “ Inkjet Printing of Functional and Structural Materials: Fluid Property Requirements, Feature Stability and Resolution,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 40(1), pp. 395–414. [CrossRef]
Arrabito, G. , Galati, C. , Castellano, S. , and Pignataro, B. , 2013, “ Luminometric sub-Nanoliter Droplet-to-Droplet Array (LUMDA) and Its Application to Drug Screening by Phase I Metabolism Enzymes,” Lab Chip, 13(1), pp. 68–72. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Calvert, P. , 2001, “ Inkjet Printing for Materials and Devices,” Chem. Mater., 13(10), pp. 3299–3305. [CrossRef]
Jang, D. , Kim, D. , and Moon, J. , 2009, “ Influence of Fluid Physical Properties on Ink-Jet Printability,” Langmuir, 25(5), pp. 2629–2635. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ellson, R. , Mutz, M. , Browning, B. , Leejr, L. , Miller, M. , and Papen, R. , 2003, “ Transfer of low Nanoliter Volumes Between Microplates Using Focused Acoustics - Automation Considerations,” JALA, 8(5), pp. 29–34.
Teplitsky, E. , Joshi, K. , Ericson, D. L. , Scalia, A. , Mullen, J. D. , Sweet, R. M. , and Soares, A. S. , 2015, “ High Throughput Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection to Combine Protein Crystals and Chemical Libraries on Crystallization Plates at High Density,” J. Struct. Biol., 191(1), pp. 49–58. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sahay, A. , Brown, M. , Muzzio, F. , and Takhistov, P. , 2013, “ Automated Drop-on-Demand System With Real-Time Gravimetric Control for Precise Dosage Formulation,” J. Lab. Autom., 18(2), pp. 152–160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shu, X. , Zhang, H. , Liu, H. , Xie, D. , and Xiao, J. , 2010, “ Experimental Study on High Viscosity Fluid Micro-Droplet Jetting System,” Sci. China: Technol. Sci., 53(1), pp. 182–187. [CrossRef]
Clasen, C. , Phillips, P. M. , Palangetic, L. , and Vermant, J. , 2012, “ Dispensing of Rheologically Complex Fluids: The Map of Misery,” AIChE J., 58(10), pp. 3242–3255. [CrossRef]
Hirshfield, L. , Giridhar, A. , Taylor, L. S. , Harris, M. T. , and Reklaitis, G. V. , 2014, “ Dropwise Additive Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Products for Solvent-Based Dosage Forms,” J. Pharm. Sci., 103(2), pp. 496–506. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Icten, E. , Giridhar, A. , Taylor, L. S. , Nagy, Z. K. , and Reklaitis, G. V. , 2015, “ Dropwise Additive Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Products for Melt-Based Dosage Forms,” J. Pharm. Sci., 104(5), pp. 1641–1649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wijshoff, H. , 2010, “ The Dynamics of the Piezo Inkjet Printhead Operation,” Phys. Rep., 491(4–5), pp. 77–177. [CrossRef]
An-Shik, Yang , and Tsai, W.-M. , 2006, “ Ejection Process Simulation for a Piezoelectric Microdroplet Generator,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 128(6), pp. 1144–1152. [CrossRef]
Bammesberger, S. , Kartmann, S. , Tanguy, L. , Liang, D. , Mutschler, K. , Ernst, A. , Zengerle, R. , and Koltay, P. , 2013, “ A Low-Cost, Normally Closed, Solenoid Valve for Non-Contact Dispensing in the Sub-μL Range,” Micromachines, 4(1), pp. 9–21. [CrossRef]
Bircher, F. , and Marmet, P. , 2009, “ Multiphysics Modelling of a Micro Valve,” Proc. European COMSOL Conference Milan, Italy, Oct. 14.
Ernst, R. C. , Watkins, C. H. , and Ruwe, H. H. , 1936, “ The Physical Properties of the Ternary System Ethyl Alcohol-Glycerin-Water.,” J. Phys. Chem., 40(5), pp. 627–635. [CrossRef]
Lindemann, T. , 2006, “ Droplet Generation - From the Nanoliter to the Femtoliter Range,” Ph.D. thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Breisgau.
Koltay, P. , Birkle, G. , Steger, R. , Kuhn, H. , Mayer, M. , Sandmaier, H. , and Zengerle, R. , 2001, “ Highly Parallel and Accurate Nanoliter Dispenser for High-Throuput-Synthesis of Chemical Compounds,” IMEMS Workshop, Singapore, July 4–6, pp. 115–124.
Verkouteren, R. M. , and Verkouteren, J. R. , 2009, “ Inkjet Metrology: High-Accuracy Mass Measurements of Microdroplets Produced by a Drop-on-Demand Dispenser,” Anal. Chem., 81(20), pp. 8577–8584. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Liang, D. , Steinert, C. , Bammesberger, S. , Tanguy, L. , Ernst, A. , Zengerle, R. , and Koltay, P. , 2013, “ Novel Gravimetric Measurement Technique for Quantitative Volume Calibration in the Sub-Microliter Range,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24(2), p. 025301. [CrossRef]
Sandler, N. , Maeaettaenen, A. , Ihalainen, P. , Kronberg, L. , Meierjohann, A. , Viitala, T. , and Peltonen, J. , 2011, “ Inkjet Printing of Drug Substances and Use of Porous Substrates-Towards Individualized Dosing,” J. Pharm. Sci., 100(8), pp. 3386–3395. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Holthoff, E. L. , Farrell, M. E. , and Pellegrino, P. M. , 2012, “ Investigating a Drop-on-Demand Microdispenser for Standardized Sample Preparation,” SPIE 8358, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIII, Baltimore, MD, April 23, p. 83580V.
Schmidt, R. L. , Randall, J. C. , and Clever, H. L. , 1966, “ Surface Tension and Density of Binary Hydrocarbon Mixtures: Benzene-n-Hexane and Benzene-n-Dodecane,” J. Phys. Chem., 70(12), pp. 3912–3916. [CrossRef]
Ruzicka, K. , and Majer, V. , 1994, “ Simultaneous Treatment of Vapor Pressures and Related Thermal Data Between the Triple and Normal Boiling Temperatures for n-Alkanes C5-C20,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23(1), pp. 1–39. [CrossRef]
Dymond, J. H. , and Oye, H. A. , 1993, “ Viscosity of Selected Liquid n-Alkanes,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23(1), pp. 41–53. [CrossRef]
Weller, H. G. , Tabor, G. , Jasak, H. , and Fureby, C. , 1998, “ A Tensorial Approach to Computational Continuum Mechanics Using Object-Oriented Techniques,” Comput. Phys., 12(6), pp. 620–631 [CrossRef]
Batchelor, G. K. , 1973, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Menter, F. R. , 1994, “ Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications,” AIAA J., 32(8), pp. 1598–1605. [CrossRef]
Clanet, C. , and Lasheras, J. C. , 1999, “ Transition From Dripping to Jetting,” J. Fluid Mech., 383, pp. 307–326. [CrossRef]
Lin, S. P. , and Reitz, R. D. , 1998, “ Drop and Spray Formation From a Liquid Jet,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 30(1), pp. 85–105. [CrossRef]
Eggers, J. , and Villermaux, E. , 2008, “ Physics of Liquid Jets,” Rep. Prog. Phys., 71(3), p. 036601. [CrossRef]
Van Hoeve, W. , Gekle, S. , Snoeijer, J. H. , Versluis, M. , Brenner, M. P. , and Lohse, D. , 2010, “ Breakup of Diminutive Rayleigh Jets,” Phys. Fluids, 22(1), p. 2122003.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Operating principle of the micro-valve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Gravimetric measurement of the dispensed mass

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Image sequence (left to right) from a high-speed camera showing the dispensing into a vial containing Dodecane at low (top row) and high (bottom row) working pressure using a white fluid for visualization

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Focus of qualitative and quantitative modeling approaches

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Meshed geometry of the dispensing device, featuring 370.000 hexahedral cells (left) and definition of boundary patches (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental steady-state mass flow against working pressure for water in comparison to WGE mixtures with a surface tension of 40 mN/m (left) and 60 mN/m (right) and viscosity of 4, 7, and 10 mPa·s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Experimental relative standard deviation (RSD) of the dispensed mass at 100 ms (left) and 1000 ms (right) opening time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the outlet of the micro-valve nozzle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental results: Ratio between the dispensed mass per opening time and the steady-state mass flow against opening time, showing the nonlinear behavior at 50 kPa (top), 200 kPa (mid), and 350 kPa (bottom) working pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Qualitative model results of droplet- (left), stable jet- (center), and unstable jet- (right) regimes. Coloration corresponds to the local volume fraction of dosing liquid, alpha.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Simulated transient dispensing effects of water for 20 kPa and 350 kPa working pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Steady-state mass flow against working pressure, experimental (full lines) and simulated (dotted lines) values of water and WGE X-40 mixtures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Steady-state mass flow against working pressure, experimental (full lines), and simulated (dotted lines) values of water and WGE X-60 mixtures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Relative deviations of simulated steady-state mass flow to experimental values against working pressure for water and all WGE mixtures

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In