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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aerodynamics and Vortex Flowfield of a Slender Delta Wing With Apex Flap and Tip Flap

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Lee, L. S. Ko

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A 0E9, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 20, 2016; published online March 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.

J. Fluids Eng 139(5), 051106 (Mar 20, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4035639 History: Received May 06, 2016; Revised December 20, 2016

The effect of apex flap and tip flap, deflected both independently and jointly, on the vortex flow and lift generation of a 65 deg-sweep delta wing was investigated experimentally. The drooped apex flap produced a higher lift at medium-to-high angle of attack regime and also a delayed stall. The anhedral (introduced by the downward tip flap) generally promoted lift increment, whereas dihedral had the opposite effect. Meanwhile, the joint apex and tip flap deflection gave a delayed leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown and an enhanced lift. The LEVs were generally drawn closer to the wing upper surface, while being pushed further away from the wing centerline by the application of apex flap and tip flap. The flap also modified the vorticity distribution in the LEV; the bursting behavior was, however, not affected. Dye-injection flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the vortex flow were also discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) PIV setup and (b) wing model

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Fig. 2

Impact of apex flap and tip flap on the aerodynamic characteristics of the delta wing at Re = 4.1 × 105. (a)–(c): apex flap deflection; (c)–(f): tip flap deflection; (g)–(i): joint apex and tip flap; and (j) CLαeff curve. BW denotes baseline wing. A + 10 denotes apex flap deflected downward 10 deg. T + 15 denotes tip flap deflected downward 15 deg. A + 10 T + 15 denotes joint A + 10 and T + 15 deflection. (j) CLαeff curve.

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Fig. 3

Impact of apex flap and tip flap on the location of LEV breakdown location at Re = 12,000. (a) Present BW and published data and (b) controlled wing.

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Fig. 4

Joint PIV measurements and dye flow visualization photos showing the LEV breakdown location at α = 25 deg

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Fig. 5

Variation of LEV flow parameters with x/c at α = 25 deg

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Fig. 6

Joint three-dimensional representation of the iso-ζc/u plots at α = 25 deg. (a) BW and A + 15 case, (b) T + 30 and T − 30 cases, and (c) A + 10 T + 15 and A + 10 T − 30 cases.

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