0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aerodynamics and Vortex Flowfield of a Slender Delta Wing With Apex Flap and Tip Flap

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Lee, L. S. Ko

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A 0E9, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 20, 2016; published online March 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.

J. Fluids Eng 139(5), 051106 (Mar 20, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4035639 History: Received May 06, 2016; Revised December 20, 2016

The effect of apex flap and tip flap, deflected both independently and jointly, on the vortex flow and lift generation of a 65 deg-sweep delta wing was investigated experimentally. The drooped apex flap produced a higher lift at medium-to-high angle of attack regime and also a delayed stall. The anhedral (introduced by the downward tip flap) generally promoted lift increment, whereas dihedral had the opposite effect. Meanwhile, the joint apex and tip flap deflection gave a delayed leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown and an enhanced lift. The LEVs were generally drawn closer to the wing upper surface, while being pushed further away from the wing centerline by the application of apex flap and tip flap. The flap also modified the vorticity distribution in the LEV; the bursting behavior was, however, not affected. Dye-injection flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the vortex flow were also discussed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Liu, T. , Makhmalbaf, M. , Ramasamy, R. , Kode, S. , and Merati, P. , 2015, “ Skin Friction Fields and Surface Dye Patterns on Delta Wings in Water Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(7), p. 071202. [CrossRef]
Wang, F. Y. , Milanovic, I. M. , Zaman, K. B. , and Povinelli, L. A. , 2005, “ A Quantitative Comparison of Delta Wing Vortices in the Near-Wake for Incompressible and Supersonic Free Streams,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(6), pp. 1071–1084. [CrossRef]
Morton, S. , Forsythe, J. , Mitchell, A. , and Hajek, D. , 2002, “ Detached-Eddy Simulations and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of Delta Wing Vortical Flowfields,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124(4), pp. 924–932. [CrossRef]
Rao, D. M. , and Huffman, J. K. , 1982, “ Hinged Strakes for Enhanced Maneuverability at High Angles of Attack,” J. Aircraft, 19(4), pp. 278–282. [CrossRef]
Panton, R. L. , 1990, “ Effects of a Contoured Apex on Vortex Breakdown,” J. Aircraft, 27(3), pp. 285–288. [CrossRef]
Lowson, M. V. , and Riley, A. J. , 1995, “ Vortex Breakdown Control by Delta Wing Geometry,” J. Aircraft, 32(4), pp. 832–838. [CrossRef]
Klute, S. M. , Rediniostis, O. K. , and Telionis, D. P. , 1996, “ Flow Control Over a Maneuvering Delta Wing at High Angles of Attack,” AIAA J., 34(4), pp. 662–668. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. J. , Xu, Y. , and Li, Y. C. , 2002, “ Experimental Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 70-Degree Delta Wing With Apex Flap,” Experiments and Measurements in Fluid Mechanics, 2, pp. 52–56.
Marchman, J. F. , 1981, “ Aerodynamics of Inverted Leading-Edge Flaps on Delta Wings,” J. Aircraft, 18(12), pp. 1051–1056. [CrossRef]
Deng, Q. , and Gursul, I. , 1996, “ Effect of Leading-Edge Flaps on Vortices and Vortex Breakdown,” J. Aircraft, 33(6), pp. 1079–1086. [CrossRef]
Gu, W. , Robinson, O. , and Rockwell, D. , 1993, “ Control of Vortices on a Delta Wing by Leading-Edge Injection,” AIAA J., 31(7), pp. 1177–1186. [CrossRef]
Helin, H. E. , and Waltry, C. W. , 1994, “ Effects of Trailing-Edge Jet Entrainment on Delta Wing Vortices,” AIAA J., 32(4), pp. 802–804. [CrossRef]
Miyaji, K. , Fujiii, K. , and Karashima, K. , 1996, “ Enhancement of the Lateral Leading-Edge Separation Vortices by Trailing-Edge Lateral Blowing,” AIAA J., 34(9), pp. 1943–1945. [CrossRef]
Badarn, B. , McCormick, S. , and Gursul, I. , 1998, “ Control of Leading-Edge Vortices With Suction,” J. Aircraft, 35(1), pp. 163–165. [CrossRef]
Mitchell, A. M. , Barberis, D. , Molton, P. , and Delery, J. , 2002, “ Control of Leading-Edge Vortex Breakdown by Trailing-Edge Injection,” J. Aircraft, 39(2), pp. 221–226. [CrossRef]
Wahls, R. A. , Vess, R. J. , and Moskovitz, C. A. , 1986, “ Experimental Investigation of Apex Fence Flaps on Delta Wings,” J. Aircraft, 23(10), pp. 789–797. [CrossRef]
Zhan, J. X. , and Wang, J. J. , 2004, “ Experimental Study on Gurney Flap and Apex Flap on a Delta Wing,” J. Aircraft, 41(6), pp. 1379–1383. [CrossRef]
Traub, L. W. , 2000, “ Aerodynamic Characteristics of Spanwise Cambered Delta Wings,” J. Aircraft, 37(4), pp. 714–724. [CrossRef]
Lee, G.-B. , Shih, C. , Tai, Y.-C. , Tsao, T. , Liu, C. , Huang, A. , and Ho, C.-M. , 2000, “ Robust Vortex Control of a Delta Wing by Distributed Micro Electro Mechanical-Systems Actuators,” J. Aircraft, 37(4), pp. 697–706. [CrossRef]
Lee, T. , 2016, “ Impact of Gurney Flaplike Strips on the Aerodynamic and Vortex Flow Characteristic of a Reverse Delta Wing,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(6), p. 061104. [CrossRef]
Jobe, C. E. , 2004, “ Vortex Breakdown Location Over 65 Degrees Delta Wings Empiricism and Experiment,” Aeronaut. J., 108(7), pp. 475–482. [CrossRef]
Skow, A. M. , and Erickson, G. E. , 1982, “ Modern Fighter Aircraft Design for High-Angle-of-Attack Maneuvering,” AGARD-LS-121, pp. 4-1–4-59.
Huang, X. Z. , Sun, Y. Z. , and Hanff, E. S. , 1997, “ Further Investigations of Leading-Edge Vortex Breakdown Over Delta Wings,” AIAA Paper No. 97-2263.
Lambourne, N. C. , and Bryer, D. W. , 1961, “ The Bursting of Leading-Edge Vortices: Some Observations and Discussion of the Phenomenon,” Aeronautical Research Council of Great Britain, Memoranda No. 3282.
Thompson, D. H. , 1975, “ A Water Tunnel Study of Vortex Breakdown Over Wings With Highly Swept Leading Edges,” Australian Defence Scientific Service, Note ARL/A 356.
Payne, F. M. , Ng, T. T. , and Nelson, R. C. , 1988, “ Visualization and Wake Surveys of Vortical Flow Over a Delta Wing,” AIAA J., 26(2), pp. 137–143. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) PIV setup and (b) wing model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Impact of apex flap and tip flap on the aerodynamic characteristics of the delta wing at Re = 4.1 × 105. (a)–(c): apex flap deflection; (c)–(f): tip flap deflection; (g)–(i): joint apex and tip flap; and (j) CLαeff curve. BW denotes baseline wing. A + 10 denotes apex flap deflected downward 10 deg. T + 15 denotes tip flap deflected downward 15 deg. A + 10 T + 15 denotes joint A + 10 and T + 15 deflection. (j) CLαeff curve.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Impact of apex flap and tip flap on the location of LEV breakdown location at Re = 12,000. (a) Present BW and published data and (b) controlled wing.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Joint PIV measurements and dye flow visualization photos showing the LEV breakdown location at α = 25 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of LEV flow parameters with x/c at α = 25 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Joint three-dimensional representation of the iso-ζc/u plots at α = 25 deg. (a) BW and A + 15 case, (b) T + 30 and T − 30 cases, and (c) A + 10 T + 15 and A + 10 T − 30 cases.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In