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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

The Influence of Wing Span and Angle of Attack on Racing Car Wing/Wheel Interaction Aerodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Sammy Diasinos

Faculty of Science and Engineering,
Macquarie University,
Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
e-mail: sammy.diasinos@mq.edu.au

Tracie J. Barber

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales,
Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
e-mail: t.barber@unsw.edu.au

Graham Doig

Aerospace Engineering Department,
California Polytechnic State University,
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407;
School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales,
Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
e-mail: gcdoig@calpoly.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 1, 2015; final manuscript received January 20, 2017; published online March 23, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhongquan Charlie Zheng.

J. Fluids Eng 139(6), 061102 (Mar 23, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-15-1079; doi: 10.1115/1.4035877 History: Received February 01, 2015; Revised January 20, 2017

A numerical-based (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)) investigation into the role of span and wing angle in determining the performance of an inverted wing in ground effect located forward of a wheel is described, using a generic simplified wheel and NACA 4412 geometry. The complex interactions between the wing and wheel flow structures are investigated to explain either increases or decreases for the downforce and drag produced by the wing and wheel when compared to the equivalent body in isolation. Geometries that allowed the strongest primary wing vortex to pass along the inner face of the wheel resulted in the most significant reductions in lift and drag for the wheel. As a result, the wing span and angle combination that would produce the most downforce, or least drag, in the presence of the wheel does not coincide with what would be assumed if the two bodies were considered only in isolation demonstrating the significance of optimizing these two bodies in unison.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Vortices , Wheels , Wings
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The three types of wing vortex/wheel interactions possible depending on wing span, wing angle, and ground clearance

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Fig. 2

Relevant wing and wheel parameters

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Fig. 3

Variation in wing and wheel lift and drag as mesh density is increased

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Fig. 4

Wing lift results for variations in span and angle of attack for an isolated wing and in the presence of a wheel (ground clearance h/c = 0.13)

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Fig. 5

Wing drag results for variations in span and angle of attack for an isolated wing and in the presence of a wheel

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Fig. 6

Wheel lift and drag for an isolated wheel and in the presence of a wing with varied span and angle of attack

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Fig. 7

Total lift results for variations in wing span and angle of attack for the sum of an isolated wing and isolated wheel and with the two combined

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Fig. 8

Total drag results for variations in wing span and angle of attack for the sum of an isolated wing and isolated wheel and with the two combined

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Fig. 9

Vectors and vorticity on an x/c = −0.63 plane (between wing and wheel) for a wing in the presence of a wheel with varied wing span (angle of attack = 0 deg): (a) S/c = 0.97, x/c = −0.63, (b) S/c = 1.24, x/c = −0.63, (c) S/c = 1.42, x/c = −0.63, and (d) S/c = 1.60, x/c = −0.63

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Fig. 10

Vectors and vorticity on an x/c = 0 plane (wheel center) for a wing in the presence of a wheel with varied wing span (angle of attack = 0 deg): (a) S/c = 0.97, (b) S/c = 1.24, (c) S/c = 1.42, and (d) S/c = 1.60

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Fig. 11

Vectors and vorticity on an x/c = −0.63 plane (between wing and wheel) for a wing in isolation and in the presence of a wheel with varied wing span (angle of attack = 12 deg): (a) isolated wing—S/c = 0.97, x/c = −0.63, (b) wing and wheel—S/c = 0.97, x/c = −0.63, (c) isolated wing—S/c = 1.24, x/c = −0.63, and (d) wing and wheel—S/c = 1.24, x/c = −0.63

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Fig. 12

Vectors and vorticity on an x/c = −0.63 plane (between wing and wheel) for a wing in isolation and in the presence of a wheel with varied wing span (angle of attack = 12 deg): (a) isolated wing—S/c = 1.42, x/c = −0.63, (b) wing and wheel—S/c = 1.42, x/c = −0.63, (c) isolated wing—S/c = 1.6, x/c = −0.63, and (d) wing and wheel—S/c = 1.6, x/c = −0.63

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Fig. 13

Pressure coefficients around the endplate on plane z/c = 0.1 for a wing (varied span, angle of attack = 0 deg) and wheel: (a) S/c = 0.97, z/c = 0.1, (b) S/c = 1.24, z/c = 0.1, (c) S/c = 1.42, z/c = 0.1, and (d) S/c = 1.6, z/c = 0.1

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Fig. 14

Wheel central pressure coefficients in the presence of wings of various spans and 12 deg angle of attack

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Fig. 15

Vectors and total pressure on an x/c = 0.75 (downstream of the wheel) plane for a wing of varied span in the presence of a wheel: (a) S/c = 0.97, (b) S/c = 1.24, (c) S/c = 1.42, and (d) S/c = 1.60

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Fig. 16

Main wing vortex core y (lateral) positions for wing angle of attack = 0 deg (top) and 12 deg (bottom) wings in isolation and in the presence of a wheel

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