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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Modeling Coupled Conduction–Convection Ice Formation on Horizontal Axially Finned and Unfinned Tubes

[+] Author and Article Information
Hassan M. S. Al-Sarrach

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
e-mail: hma49@scarletmail.rutgers.edu

Ghalib Y. Kahwaji

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Dubai Campus,
Dubai 341055, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: gykcad@rit.edu

Mohamed A. Samaha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Dubai Campus,
Dubai 341055, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: mascada1@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 31, 2016; final manuscript received June 28, 2017; published online August 28, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Livescu.

J. Fluids Eng 139(12), 121101 (Aug 28, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1859; doi: 10.1115/1.4037279 History: Received December 31, 2016; Revised June 28, 2017

The freezing of water around immersed unfinned and finned horizontal tubes is simulated numerically. The impact of natural convection as well as the water density inversion with temperature is considered. The equations governing both fluid flow and heat transfer around the tubes and through the solid–liquid interface are solved using finite difference schemes. To follow the moving solid–liquid boundary, dynamic grid generation is performed using the elliptic partial differential equation method with iterative interpolating smoothing to avoid divergence. For validation, the present results for unfinned tubes are compared with experimental studies reported in the literature. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the parameters affecting the freezing process around both finned and unfinned tubes. The results showed that the flow patterns are similar in both tube configurations with one main vortex in the liquid region when there is no inversion in the water density. The presence of fins complicates the distribution of local Nusselt number along the solid–liquid interface in comparison with the unfinned tube. The impact of natural convection on the rate of ice formation is limited to the initial period of the freezing process. The results also show the freezing enhancement when utilizing fins. An accumulated ice mass correlation is developed for each tube configuration. This model can be used to optimize the design of both finned and unfinned tubes in energy storage systems, which are viable tools for air conditioning load shifting and leveling.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of simulation domain with boundary conditions: (a) axial finned tube and (b) unfinned tube

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Fig. 8

Temperature and stream function in liquid side at different times. D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. All vortices are rotating clockwise.

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Fig. 9

Temperature and stream function in liquid side at different times. D = 0.02 m, Lf = 0.02 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. All vortices are rotating clockwise.

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Fig. 7

Comparison between formed ice-layer thickness predicted from present simulations and those experimentally obtained by Fertelli et al. [30]

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Fig. 13

Local Nusselt number variation with location and time: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 14

Local Nusselt number variation with location and time: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.025 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 15

Local Nusselt number variation with location and time: D = 0.03 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 6

Comparison between formed ice-layer thickness predicted from present simulations and those experimentally obtained by Habeebullah [31]

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Fig. 5

Time history of the amount of formed ice having meshed domain with two different grid densities: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 0 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 4

Grid generation during ice-layer growing with time after considering grid adaptation. The arrow indicates the direction of time progress.

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Fig. 3

Distortion in grid generation during ice-layer growing with time. Dashed circle spot shows the distortion. The arrow indicates the direction of time progress.

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Fig. 21

Temperature and stream function in liquid side at different times (unfinned tube). D = 0.02 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. All vortices are rotating clockwise.

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Fig. 22

Temperature and stream function in liquid side at different times (unfinned tube). D = 0.02 m, TL-in = 6 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. The isothermal lines at 0 °C and 4 °C are plotted. Rotation (−) clockwise and (+) counterclockwise.

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Fig. 23

Temperature and stream function in the liquid side at different times (unfinned tube). D = 0.03 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. The isothermal lines at 0 °C and 4 °C are plotted. Rotation (−) clockwise and (+) counterclockwise.

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Fig. 24

Local Nusselt number variation with time and angular location on solid–liquid interface (unfinned tube). D = 0.02 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Angle Ω is measured from lower side.

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Fig. 25

Local Nusselt number variation with time and angular location on solid–liquid interface (unfinned tube). D = 0.02 m, TL-in = 6 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Angle Ω is measured from lower side.

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Fig. 26

Local Nusselt number variation with time and angular location on solid–liquid interface (unfinned tube). D = 0.02 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Angle Ω is measured from lower side.

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Fig. 27

Comparison between conduction- and convection-controlled freezing at different unfinned tube surface temperatures: D = 0.01 m and TL-in = 3 °C

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Fig. 28

Effect of unfinned tube diameter and liquid initial temperature on amount of formed ice: Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 29

Effect of using fins on amount of formed ice: D = 0.01 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 30

Effect of using fins on amount of formed ice: D = 0.03 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 2

Grid generation using three different methods

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Fig. 10

Temperature and stream function in liquid side at different times. D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 10 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C. Left region around the tube represents formed ice. Right region with vortices represents liquid side. Isothermal lines at 0 °C and 4 °C are plotted. Rotation (−) clockwise and (+) counterclockwise.

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Fig. 11

Local Nusselt number variation with location and time: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 12

Local Nusselt number variation with location and time: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −15 °C

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Fig. 16

Average Nusselt number variation with time: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, and TL-in = 3 °C

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Fig. 17

Comparison between conduction- and convection-controlled freezing at different tube surface temperatures: D = 0.01 m, Lf = 0.015 m, and TL-in = 3 °C

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Fig. 18

Effect of fin's length and liquid initial temperature on amount of formed ice: D = 0.01 m and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 19

Effect of fin's length and liquid initial temperature on amount of formed ice: D = 0.03 m and Tcy = −5 °C

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Fig. 20

Effect of tube diameter on amount of formed ice with time: Lf = 0.015 m, TL-in = 3 °C, and Tcy = −5 °C

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