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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Development of the Dual Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabriel Naccache

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Sir George Williams Campus,
1515 Ste-Catherine Street West,
Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada
e-mail: gabriel_naccache@hotmail.com

Marius Paraschivoiu

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Sir George Williams Campus,
1515 Ste-Catherine Street West,
Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada
e-mail: marius.paraschivoiu@concordia.ca

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 7, 2016; final manuscript received July 16, 2017; published online September 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.

J. Fluids Eng 139(12), 121105 (Sep 07, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1355; doi: 10.1115/1.4037490 History: Received June 07, 2016; Revised July 16, 2017

Small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are good candidates to extract energy from wind in urban areas because they are easy to install, service, and do not generate much noise; however, the efficiency of small turbines is low. Here-in a new turbine, with high efficiency, is proposed. The novel design is based on the classical H-Darrieus VAWT. VAWTs produce the highest power when the blade chord is perpendicular to the incoming wind direction. The basic idea behind the proposed turbine is to extend that said region of maximum power by having the blades continue straight instead of following a circular path. This motion can be performed if the blades turn along two axes; hence, it was named dual vertical axis wind turbine (D-VAWT). The analysis of this new turbine is done through the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. While 2D is used to validate the methodology, 3D is used to get an accurate estimate of the turbine performance. The analysis of a single blade is performed and the turbine shows that a power coefficient of 0.4 can be achieved, reaching performance levels high enough to compete with the most efficient VAWTs. The D-VAWT is still far from full optimization, but the analysis presented here shows the hidden potential and serves as proof of concept.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Turbulence modeling behavior at high TSR (λ = 4.25) (top) and low TSR (λ = 2.55) (bottom) [10]

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Fig. 2

Top view of a typical H-Darrieus VAWT with velocity vectors and forces, where θ is the azimuthal angle, U is the freestream velocity, Vblade is the blade velocity, Urelative is the relative velocity seen by the blade, α is the effective angle of attack, D is the drag force, and L is the lift force

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Fig. 3

Example of D-VAWT: (a) top view and (b) 3D CAD model

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Fig. 4

Instantaneous CP curve based on the combination of both the force- and torque-based methods

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Fig. 5

Boundary conditions on domain

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Fig. 6

Type 1 motion illustration

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Fig. 7

Rotating domain mesh for type 1 and 2 motions

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Fig. 8

Type 2 motion illustration

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Fig. 10

Deforming domain mesh view for type 3 motion

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Fig. 11

Dynamic domain mesh view for type 3 motion

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Fig. 9

Type 3 motion illustration

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Fig. 12

Rotating domain mesh view for mesh 1

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Fig. 13

Refinement region mesh around blade for mesh 1

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Fig. 14

BL views for mesh 1 at leading edge (top), zoomed at midchord (middle), and trailing edge (bottom)

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Fig. 15

Average cycle CP convergence plot for mesh 1

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Fig. 16

Instantaneous CP plots of the 15th cycle for the turbulence model study using mesh 1 at TSR = 4.5

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Fig. 17

Coefficient of lift versus angle of attack for static airfoil at Re = 500,000

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Fig. 18

Coefficient of drag versus angle of attack for static airfoil at Re = 500,000

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Fig. 19

Ratio of coefficient of lift to coefficient of drag versus angle of attack for static airfoil at Re = 500,000

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Fig. 20

Coefficient of lift versus coefficient of drag for static airfoil at Re = 500,000

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Fig. 21

3D domain for D-VAWT with AR = 5

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Fig. 22

Rotating domain mesh at symmetry plane for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 30

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Fig. 23

Refinement region mesh at symmetry plane for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 30

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Fig. 24

BL mesh view at symmetry plane for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 30

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Fig. 25

Cross section of mesh around the blade AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 30

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Fig. 26

Refinement region mesh at symmetry plane for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 1

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Fig. 27

BL mesh view at symmetry plane for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 1

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Fig. 28

Cross section of mesh around the blade for AR = 5 and y+ ∼ 1

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Fig. 29

Boundary conditions for 3D domains

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Fig. 30

Average CP per cycle convergence for 3D simulations

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Fig. 31

Instantaneous CP plots of the last cycle for 3D simulations

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Fig. 32

Normalized velocity deficit ((U∞−U)/U∞) plots on a plane of half a chord away in the spanwise direction from the symmetry plane at t/T = 0.68 for cases: (a) SA strain/vorticity (y+ ∼ 30) with AR = 5, (b) SA strain/vorticity (y+ ∼ 30) with AR = 15, (c) SST k–ω (y+ ∼ 1) with AR = 5, and (d) SST k–ω (y+ ∼ 1) with AR = 15

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Fig. 33

Static pressure contour on half of the blade surface for SST k–ω (y+ ∼ 1) model at t/T = 0.33 for (a) AR = 5 and (b) AR = 15

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Fig. 34

Turbulent viscosity ratio (νt/ν) plots on a plane of half a chord away in the spanwise direction from the symmetry plane at t/T = 0.33 for cases: (a) SA strain/vorticity (y+ ∼ 30) with AR = 5, (b) SA strain/vorticity (y+ ∼ 30) with AR = 15, and (c) SST k–ω (y+ ∼ 1) with AR = 5, and (d) SST k–ω (y+ ∼ 1) with AR = 15

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Fig. 35

Comparing instantaneous CP for 2D and 3D with AR = 5 and 15 using the SST k–ω model (y+ ∼ 1)

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