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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Lift-Generation and Moving-Wall Flow Control Over a Low Aspect Ratio Airfoil

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammed Amin Boukenkoul

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: boukenkoulmedamine@hotmail.fr

Feng-Chen Li

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: lifengchen2016@gmail.com

Wen-Li Chen

School of Civil Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150090, China
e-mail: cwl_80@hit.edu.cn

Hong-Na Zhang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: zhanghn@hit.edu.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 20, 2017; final manuscript received August 6, 2017; published online September 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hui Hu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(1), 011104 (Sep 20, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1171; doi: 10.1115/1.4037681 History: Received March 20, 2017; Revised August 06, 2017

Despite the big interest in both, micro-air vehicles (MAV) and flow-control strategies, only few studies have investigated the flow-control possibilities over low aspect ratio (LAR) wings flying at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The present study verified the LAR thick airfoils' conformity with the nonlinear lift approximation equation. Then, a moving-wall flow control method was designed and tested over an LAR thick airfoil (0.57 aspect ration (AR), NACA0015 shaped) performing at a chord-based Re of 4 × 104. The moving belt control postponed the stall onset by 25 deg and produced a 103% gain in lift without any saturation signs at a control speed ratio of Ub/U = 6. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements confirmed the effectiveness of the moving-wall control strategy on the upper surface flow reattachment. Moreover, other quantities such as the, vortices, and the swirling strength are investigated.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

THICK0015 airfoil fitted by the moving-belt, electric engine, and the support mechanism: (a) front view and (b) top view

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Fig. 2

Small wind tunnel experimental apparatus

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Fig. 3

Lift coefficient versus the AOA. Dotted line: NACA0015 at 8 × 104 Re experiments; solid line: Eq. (1) fitting; and dashed line: THICK0015 at 4 × 104 Re.

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Fig. 4

PIV super-positioning images

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Fig. 5

NACA0015 0.57 AR midspan vertical velocity and streamlines, Re = 8 × 104, 21 deg AOA

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Fig. 6

Performances of the 0.57 AR THICK0015 airfoil at different AOA at Re = 4 × 104 for Ub/U of 0, 2, 4, and 6: (a) lift coefficient CL, (b) drag coefficient CD, (c) lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD, and (d) CLmax and Stall AOA

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Fig. 7

Temporal lift variation for the THICK0015 with Ub/U of 0, 2, 4, and 6 at 39 deg AOA, Re = 4 × 104

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Fig. 8

Spectral analysis of the y-force component for the uncontrolled flow (square), engine (triangle), and the controlled flow (circle)

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Fig. 9

Midspan flow visualization for 0.57 AR THICK0015 at Re = 2 × 104: (a)–(d) correspond to Ub/U = 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively

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Fig. 10

Effect of the moving-belt control on the velocity profile in the top-side for the THICK0015 at 4 × 104 Re and 39 deg AOA: (a) zero control and (b) Ub/U = 6

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Fig. 11

Effect of the moving-belt control on the velocity profile in the suction side of the THICK0015 at Re ≈ 0 and 0 deg AOA: (a) zero control and (b) Ub/U = 6

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Fig. 12

Snapshots of midspan swirling and vortices for the THICK0015 at Re = 4 × 104 and 37 deg AOA; (a) and (b) streamlines with vorticity contours and (c) and (d) streamlines with swirling strength contours; (left column) zero control and (right column) Ub/U = 6

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Fig. 13

Averaged vertical velocity and streamline for the THICK 0015 at Re = 4 × 104 and 50 deg AOA at different control speeds Ub/U = 0, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, for (a)–(d)

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