Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Dead Water Problem

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehdi Esmaeilpour

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering and
IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: mehdi-esmaeilpour@uiowa.edu

J. Ezequiel Martin

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering and
IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: juan-martin@uiowa.edu

Pablo M. Carrica

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering and
IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: pablo-carrica@uiowa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 27, 2017; final manuscript received August 15, 2017; published online October 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Livescu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(3), 031203 (Oct 19, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4037693 History: Received February 27, 2017; Revised August 15, 2017

The dead water problem, in which under certain conditions a vessel advancing in a stratified fluid experiences a considerable increase in resistance respect to the equivalent case without stratification, was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The advance of a vessel in presence of a density interface (pycnocline) results in the generation of an internal wave that in the most adverse conditions can increase the total resistance coefficient by almost an order of magnitude. This paper analyses the effects of stratification on total and friction resistance, the near field wake, internal and free surface waves, and resistance dynamics. Some of these effects are reported for the first time, as limitations of previous efforts using potential flow are overcome by the use of a viscous, free surface CFD solver. A range of densimetric Froude numbers from subcritical to supercritical are evaluated changing both the ship speed and pycnocline depth, using as platform the research vessel athena. It was found that the presence of the internal wave causes a favorable pressure gradient, acceleration of the flow in the downstream of the hull, resulting in thinning of the boundary layer and increases of the friction resistance coefficient of up to 30%. The total resistance presents an unstable region that results in a hysteretic behavior, though the characteristic time to establish the speed–resistance curve, dominated by the formation of the internal waves, is very long and unlikely to cause problems in modern ship speed controllers.

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Fig. 6

Friction resistance coefficient as a function of Frh and different h/D or speeds

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Fig. 5

Resistance coefficient as a function of h/D at constant Frh

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Fig. 4

Internal wave elevation for all grids at Frh=1.27

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Fig. 3

Time history of resistance coefficient for three different grid systems at h/D=1.5

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Fig. 1

Grid topology for bare hull R/V Athena and undisturbed pycnocline position

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Fig. 2

Resistance coefficient as a function of Frh and different h/D or ship speeds

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Fig. 7

Internal wave elevation as a function of Frh for h/D=1

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Fig. 8

Internal wave elevation as a function of h/D for Frh=0.91

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Fig. 9

Internal wave and surface wave elevations for Frh=0.91 and h/D=1.5

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Fig. 10

Cross (top) and axial (bottom) velocity at the internal wave for Frh=0.91 and h/D=1.5

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Fig. 11

Boundary layer and vortical structures in the wake represented by axial velocity (top panels) and pressure (bottom panels) for Frh=0.91 and h/D=1.5. The line indicates the pycnocline (internal wave interface) for the stratified case, and an equivalent iso-surface for a transported passive scalar for the nonstratified case.

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Fig. 12

Time histories of dimensionless resistance for an impulsive start from rest, for different densimetric Froude numbers at h/D=1.5

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Fig. 13

Evolution of speed and dimensionless resistance for constant thrust CT=5.0×10−5 starting from rest, with different inertia at h/D=1.5. Open symbols correspond to steady-state obtained imposing a constant speed (as in Fig. 2).

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Fig. 14

Resistance/speed curves and hysteresis at h/D=1.5, obtained with the imposed thrust histories shown in Fig. 15

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Fig. 15

Resistance as a function of time for increasing (top) and decreasing (bottom) imposed thrust values



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