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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Vortex Dynamics in the Wake of Three Generic Types of Freestream Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthieu Boudreau

Laboratoire de Mécanique des
Fluides Numérique,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Laval University,
Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
e-mail: matthieu.boudreau.1@ulaval.ca

Guy Dumas

Laboratoire de Mécanique des
Fluides Numérique,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Laval University,
Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada
e-mail: gdumas@gmc.ulaval.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 21, 2016; final manuscript received August 14, 2017; published online October 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Olivier Coutier-Delgosha.

J. Fluids Eng 140(2), 021106 (Oct 24, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1470; doi: 10.1115/1.4037974 History: Received July 21, 2016; Revised August 14, 2017

An analysis of the vortex dynamics in the wake of three different freestream turbine concepts is conducted to gain a better understanding of the main processes affecting the energy recovery in their wakes. The turbine technologies considered are the axial-flow turbine (AFT), the crossflow turbine (CFT), also known as the H-Darrieus turbine, and the oscillating-foil turbine (OFT). The analysis is performed on single turbines facing a uniform oncoming flow and operating near their optimal efficiency conditions at a Reynolds number of 107. Three-dimensional (3D) delayed detached-eddy simulations (DDES) are carried out using a commercial finite volume Navier–Stokes solver. It is found that the wake dynamics of the AFT is significantly affected by the triggering of an instability, while that of the CFT and the OFT are mainly governed by the mean flow field stemming from the tip vortices' induction.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Outline and main parameters of the AFT (top), the CFT (middle), and the OFT (bottom) considered in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Computational domain and boundary conditions. The turbine's center is located at the center of the domain in the y and z directions. The AFT shown is this figure has been enlarged tenfold for the sake of clarity.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Moving mesh region of the OFT case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Volume rendering of the vorticity magnitude in the wake of the AFT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mean velocity components in the wake of the AFT on two planes passing through the turbine's axis of rotation. The white patch corresponds to the area swept by the moving mesh region where the average flow field is not available and the vertical line indicates the location of the turbine's center. (a) Mean streamwise (axial) velocity component and (b) mean z (radial) velocity component.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Volume rendering of the vorticity magnitude in the wake of the CFT. At the instant shown, the blade is located at θ ≈ 160 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Circulation of the CFT blade's tip vortex at various instants during the upstream half of the turbine's cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mean streamwise velocity in the wake of the CFT on various planes perpendicular to the streamwise direction. Note that the black rectangle corresponds to the shape of the turbine's extraction plane and that the upcoming blade region is located at the top of the figure, while the retreating blade region is located at the bottom.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mean velocity components in the wake of the CFT. The white patch corresponds to the area swept by the moving mesh region where the average flow field is not available and the vertical line indicates the location of the turbine's axis of rotation. (a) Mean spanwise velocity on the transverse midplane (y/D = 0) and (b) mean transverse velocity on the spanwise midplane (z/b = 0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Volume rendering of the vorticity magnitude in the wake of the OFT. At the instant shown, the blade is located at its lowest position reached during a turbine's cycle.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Q-criterion isosurfaces [53] colored by the streamwise vorticity component in the wake of the OFT. The blade is located at its highest position reached during a turbine's cycle. Isosurfaces are not shown in the moving mesh region for clarity.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Mean velocity components in the wake of the OFT. The white patch corresponds to the area swept by the moving mesh region where the average flow field is not available and the vertical line indicates the location of the turbine's center. (a) Mean transverse velocity on the spanwise midplane (z/b = 0) and (b) mean spanwise velocity on the transverse midplane (y/D = 0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Mean streamwise velocity in the wake of the OFT on various planes perpendicular to the streamwise direction. Note that the black rectangle corresponds to the shape of the turbine's extraction plane.

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