Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Nonlinear Lifting Line Theory Applied to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Development of a Practical Design Tool

[+] Author and Article Information
David Marten

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Straße 8,
Berlin D-10623, Germany
e-mail: david.marten@tu-berlin.de

Georgios Pechlivanoglou, Christian Navid Nayeri, Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Straße 8,
Berlin D-10623, Germany

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 29, 2016; final manuscript received July 5, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Olivier Coutier-Delgosha.

J. Fluids Eng 140(2), 021107 (Oct 31, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1483; doi: 10.1115/1.4037978 History: Received July 29, 2016; Revised July 05, 2017

Recently, a new interest in vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology is fueled by research on floating support structures for large-scale offshore wind energy application. For the application on floating structures at multimegawatt size, the VAWT concept may offer distinct advantages over the conventional horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) design. As an example, VAWT turbines are better suited for upscaling, and at multimegawatt size, the problem of periodic fatigue cycles reduces significantly due to a very low rotational speed. Additionally, the possibility to store the transmission and electricity generation system at the bottom, compared to the tower top as in a HAWT, can lead to a considerable reduction of material logistics costs. However, as most VAWT research stalled in the mid 1990s, no sophisticated and established tools to investigate this concept further exist today. Due to the complex interaction between unsteady aerodynamics and movement of the floating structure, fully coupled simulation tools modeling both aero and structural dynamics are needed. A nonlinear lifting line free vortex wake (LLFVW) code was recently integrated into the open source wind turbine simulation suite qblade. This paper describes some of the necessary adaptions of the algorithm, which differentiates it from the usual application in HAWT simulations. A focus is set on achieving a high robustness and computational efficiency. A short validation study compares LLFVW results with those of a two-dimensional (2D) unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) simulation.

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Fig. 1

Left detail of free evolving VAWT wake and right: postprocessed wake showing streamlines and vorticity isosurface

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Fig. 2

Geometry of a blade panel, position of lifting line, shed, and trailing vortex elements

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Fig. 3

Time derivative of position vector versus tangent vector for a VAWT

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Fig. 4

Power coefficient (CP) over one rotation for six different azimuthal discretizations

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Fig. 5

VAWT single blade wake with three different values maximum vortex age (six revolutions, four revolutions, and two revolutions)

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Fig. 6

The effect of wake truncation on the simulation accuracy

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Fig. 7

VAWT single blade wake structure with three different values for wake reduction (0%, 35%, and 70%)

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Fig. 8

The effect of wake reduction on the simulation accuracy

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Fig. 9

Comparison of simulation times between single CPU, OpenMP, and OpenCL parallelization

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Fig. 10

CP over TSR curves, one bladed configuration

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Fig. 11

Lift polars used in the DMS and LLFVW simulations

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Fig. 12

Torque coefficient over azimuthal angle; TSR: 2.2, one bladed configuration

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Fig. 13

Torque coefficient over azimuthal angle; TSR: 2.8, one bladed configuration

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Fig. 14

Torque coefficient over azimuthal angle; TSR: 3.9, one bladed configuration



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