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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Design of the Solenoid Valve of an Antilock Braking System With Reduced Flow Noise

[+] Author and Article Information
Seung Joong Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
KAIST,
291 Daehak-ro,
Yuseong-gu,
Daejeon 34141, South Korea;
Advanced Technology Team3, R&D Center,
Mando, 21 Pangyo-ro,
Bundang-gu, Seongnam 13486, South Korea
e-mail: sj_kim@kaist.ac.kr

Hyung Jin Sung

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
KAIST,
291 Daehak-ro,
Yuseong-gu,
Daejeon 34141, South Korea
e-mail: hjsung@kaist.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 14, 2017; final manuscript received September 13, 2017; published online October 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Riccardo Mereu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(3), 031105 (Oct 27, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1153; doi: 10.1115/1.4038088 History: Received March 14, 2017; Revised September 13, 2017

Large eddy simulations are carried out to predict the flow noise produced in the solenoid valve of an antilock braking system (ABS) using Lighthill’s acoustic analogy and the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW–H) surface integral method. The fluid inside the valve is assumed to be incompressible at a fixed temperature. The solenoid valve operation is realized by applying an overset grid methodology to the moving plunger, and the plunger has a linear motion in the axial direction. Several types of solenoid valves are numerically designed to maximally reduce the flow noise. The upstream flow is detached through a small opening between the plunger and the seat, which generates pressure fluctuation around the narrow gap, which is subject to high wall pressure fluctuations and shear stresses. Large eddy simulations are performed by varying the position of the flow separation. An optimal design of the valve is obtained, featuring a small radius of surface curvature, a smooth surface, and a large plunger tip area angle. Measurements are obtained from the optimal design to validate the design in a real vehicle performance test, and the predicted pressure frequency in the solenoid valve agreed well with the experimental results.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the solenoid valve. Iso-view on the left side is the full geometry of the solenoid valve with the electromagnetic coil and the block and close-up view on the right side is the core region that the fluid is controlled by the axial motion of the plunger

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Fig. 2

Generated three-dimensional computational grid with Chimera grid method. Iso-view on left figure is the full view of the computational domain and close-up view on the right side is a portion of narrow gap region which is initially lifted 0.01 mm

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Fig. 3

Grid convergence test for (a) us/U0, (b) Cp, and (c) Cf

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Fig. 4

Streamwise distribution at the tip surface of the plunger of (a) the wall pressure coefficient and (b) the skin friction coefficient in the time domain from t = 0 to 0.1 s. Three schematic graphics on the center position are displayed at the state of the plunger position and the streamwise distance (s), at t = 0, 0.03, and 0.1, respectively.

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Fig. 5

Detailed comparison of the streamwise distributions of (a) the wall pressure coefficient and (b) the skin friction coefficient between t = 0, 0.03, and 0.1 s

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Fig. 6

Schematic diagrams of the plunger tip region, and the design comparisons between (a) C00 (baseline)–C01, (b)C00–C02, and (c) C02–C03

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Fig. 7

Contours of velocity magnitude within the narrow gap region on the symmetric plane for the case (a) C00, (b) C01, (c) C02, and (d) C03 at t = 0.03 s, 15 increments of contour level from 0 to 80 m/s

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Fig. 8

Contours of z-direction vorticity (ωk) within the narrow gap region on the symmetric plane for the case (a) C00, (b) C01, (c) C02, and (d) C03 at t = 0.03 s, 15 increments of contour level from –2 × 106 to 2 × 106/s

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Fig. 9

Detailed comparison of the streamwise distribution of (a) the wall pressure coefficient and (b) the skin friction coefficient between the case C01, C02, and C03 at t = 0.03 s

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Fig. 10

Contours of the RMS acoustic sources within the narrow gap region on the symmetric plane for the case (a) C00, (b) C01, (c) C02, and (d) C03 at t = 0.03 s, 5 increments of contour level from 0 to 2 × 1011

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Fig. 11

Contours of the far-field total acoustic density fluctuations on the X2X3 plane of the observer’s location for the case (a) C00, (b) C01, (c) C02, and (d) C03 at t = 0.03 s, 15 increments of contour level from −2 × 10−3 to 2 × 10−3

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Fig. 12

Contributions of the acoustic density fluctuations between (a) dipole and (b) quadrupole sources for case C03 at t = 0.03 s. 15 contour levels from –2 × 10−3 to 2 × 10−3

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the sound pressure spectra at a specific location: (X1, X2, X3) = (0, 0, 1000 mm) between the cases. The close-up view on the left-top side shows the sound pressure level at 660 Hz.

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Fig. 14

Contours of the surface pressure spectra, which is averaged in the frequency band from 655 to 665 Hz, at the plunger surface region. Fifteen increments of contour level from −5 to 5 dB

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Fig. 15

(a) Schematic diagram showing the experimental design and the measurement equipment. Spectrogram plots of (b) the sound pressure level at the driver’s position and (c) the pressure fluctuations in the end of the brake pipe line.

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Fig. 16

Frequency spectra obtained through experiments and simulations of the C03 design and fast Fourier transform analysis using the Hanning window function

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Fig. 17

(a) Schematic diagram showing the measurement locations. (b) Frequency spectra through experiments by an accelerometer.

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