Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Ground Effect on the Vortex Flow and Aerodynamics of a Slender Delta Wing

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A OC3, Canada

L. S. Ko

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A OC3, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 10, 2017; final manuscript received December 30, 2017; published online March 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Moran Wang.

J. Fluids Eng 140(7), 071104 (Mar 16, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1576; doi: 10.1115/1.4039232 History: Received September 10, 2017; Revised December 30, 2017

The ground effect on the aerodynamic loading and leading-edge vortex (LEV) flow generated by a slender delta wing was investigated experimentally. Both the lift and drag forces were found to increase with reducing ground distance (up to 50% of the wing chord). The lift increment was also found to be the greatest at low angles of attack α and decreased rapidly with increasing ground distance and α. The ground effect-caused earlier wing stall was also accompanied by a strengthened LEV with an increased rotational speed and size compared to the baseline wing. The smaller the ground distance, the stronger the LEV and the earlier vortex breakdown became. Meanwhile, the vortex trajectory was also found to be located further inboard and above the delta wing in ground effect compared to its baseline-wing counterpart. Finally, for wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft with delta-wing planform the most effective in-ground-effect flight should be kept within 10% of the wing chord.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Impact of ground effect on the aerodynamic coefficients. ΔCL = (CL,GE − CL,OGE)/CL,OGE. GE and OGE denotes in ground effect and out of the ground effect, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Influence of ground effect on the streamwise evolution of the normalized iso-vorticity contours of the 65 deg-sweep delta wing at α = 20 deg for BW and h/c = 5%, 10%, and 20%. BW denotes baseline wing.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Selected PIV slices with Δ(x/c) = 0.01 increment showing the LEV breakdown location at α = 20 deg: BW—(a) x/c = 0.75, (b) x/c = 0.76, (c) x/c = 0.77 and (d) x/c = 0.78, h/c = 5%—(e) x/c = 0.70, (f) x/c = 0.71, (g) x/c = 0.72 and (h)x/c = 0.73, h/c = 10%—(i) x/c = 0.72, (j) x/c = 0.73, (k) x/c = 0.74 and (l) x/c = 0.75, and h/c = 20%—(m) x/c = 0.72, (n)x/c = 0.73, (o) x/c = 0.74, and (p) x/c = 0.75

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Streamwise variation of LEV flow parameters with h/c at α = 20 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ground effect on normalize vorticity and tangential velocity distributions across vortex center at selected h/c, α and x/c. ((a) and (b)): h/c = 10% and α = 20 deg. ((c) and (d)): α = 16 deg and x/c = 0.7.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of the delta wing model and definition of ground distance h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Selected iso-ζc/u contours in ground effect at α = 16 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Impact of ground effect on streamwise evolution of vθ,peak and Γo at α = 16 deg



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