0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Design and Validation of a Recirculating, High-Reynolds Number Water Tunnel

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian R. Elbing

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Oklahoma State University,
Engineering North 218,
Stillwater, OK 74078
e-mail: elbing@okstate.edu

Libin Daniel

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078
e-mail: Libin.Daniel@gulfstream.com

Yasaman Farsiani

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Oklahoma State University,
Engineering North 218,
Stillwater, OK 74078
e-mail: yasaman.farsiani@okstate.edu

Christopher E. Petrin

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Oklahoma State University,
Engineering North 218,
Stillwater, OK 74078
e-mail: cepetri@okstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Flight Test Engineering, Gulftstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, GA 31408.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 2, 2017; final manuscript received February 15, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Elias Balaras.

J. Fluids Eng 140(8), 081102 (Mar 29, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1404; doi: 10.1115/1.4039509 History: Received July 02, 2017; Revised February 15, 2018

Commercial water tunnels typically generate a momentum thickness based Reynolds number (Reθ) ∼1000, which is slightly above the laminar to turbulent transition. The current work compiles the literature on the design of high-Reynolds number facilities and uses it to design a high-Reynolds number recirculating water tunnel that spans the range between commercial water tunnels and the largest in the world. The final design has a 1.1 m long test-section with a 152 mm square cross section that can reach speed of 10 m/s, which corresponds to Reθ=15,000. Flow conditioning via a tandem configuration of honeycombs and settling-chambers combined with an 8.5:1 area contraction resulted in an average test-section inlet turbulence level <0.3% and negligible mean shear in the test-section core. The developing boundary layer on the test-section walls conform to a canonical zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) flat-plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) with the outer variable scaled profile matching a 1/7th power-law fit, inner variable scaled velocity profiles matching the log-law and a shape factor of 1.3.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

White, C. M. , Dubief, Y. , and Klewicki, J. , 2012, “ Re-Examining the Logarithmic Dependence of the Mean Velocity Distribution in Polymer Drag Reduced Wall-Bounded Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 24(2), p. 021701. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Perlin, M. , Dowling, D. R. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2013, “ Modification of the Mean Near-Wall Velocity Profile of a High-Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer With the Injection of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions,” Phys. Fluids, 25(8), p. 085103. [CrossRef]
Reich, D. B. , Elbing, B. R. , Berezin, C. R. , and Schmitz, S. , 2014, “ Water Tunnel Flow Diagnostics of Wake Structures Downstream of a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 59(3), p. 032001. [CrossRef]
Etter, R. J. , Cutbirth, M. J. , Ceccio, S. L. , Dowling, D. R. , and Perlin, M. , 2005, “ High Reynolds Number Experimentation in the U.S. Navy's William B Morgan Large Cavitation Channel,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 16(9), pp. 1701–1709. [CrossRef]
Park, J. T. , Cutbirth, J. , and Brewer, W. H. , 2005, “ Experimental Methods for Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Very Large Water Tunnel,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(6), pp. 1210–1214. [CrossRef]
Lauchle, G. C. , and Gurney, G. B. , 1984, “ Laminar Boundary-Layer Transition on a Heated Underwater Body,” J. Fluid Mech., 144(1), pp. 79–101. [CrossRef]
Marboe, R. C. , Weyer, R. M. , Jonson, M. L. , and Thompson, D. E. , 1993, “ Hydroacoustic Research Capabilities in the Large Water Tunnel at ARL Penn State,” Symposium on Flow Noise Modeling, Measurement, and Control, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 28–Dec. 3, pp. 125–136.
Arndt, R. E. A. , Arakeri, V. H. , and Higuchi, H. , 1991, “ Some Observations of Tip Vortex Cavitation,” J. Fluid Mech., 229(1), pp. 269–289. [CrossRef]
Shen, X. , Ceccio, S. L. , and Perlin, M. , 2006, “ Influence of Bubble Size on Micro-Bubble Drag Reduction,” Exp. Fluids, 41(3), pp. 415–424. [CrossRef]
Makiharju, S. A. , Elbing, B. R. , Wiggins, A. , Schinasi, S. , Vanden Broeck, J.-M. , Perlin, M. , Dowling, D. R. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2013, “ On the Scaling of Air Entrainment From a Ventilated Partial Cavity,” J. Fluid Mech., 732, pp. 47–76. [CrossRef]
Oweis, G. F. , Choi, J. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2004, “ Dynamics and Noise Emission of Laser Induced Cavitation Bubbles in a Vortical Flow Field,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115(3), pp. 1049–1058. [CrossRef]
Elbing, B. R. , Dowling, D. R. , Perlin, M. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2010, “ Diffusion of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions Within a Rough-Walled Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Phys. Fluids, 22(4), p. 045102. [CrossRef]
Madavan, N. K. , Deutsch, S. , and Merkle, C. L. , 1984, “ Reduction of Turbulent Skin Friction by Microbubbles,” Phys. Fluids, 27(2), pp. 356–363. [CrossRef]
Deutsch, S. , and Castano, J. , 1986, “ Microbubble Skin Friction Reduction on an Axisymmetric Body,” Phys. Fluids, 29(11), pp. 3590–3597. [CrossRef]
Fontaine, A. A. , and Deutsch, S. , 1992, “ The Influence of the Type of Gas on the Reduction of Skin Friction Drag by Microbubble Injection,” Exp. Fluids, 13(2–3), pp. 128–136. [CrossRef]
Nedyalkov, I. , 2012, “Design of Contraction, Test Section and Diffuser for a High-Speed Water Tunnel,” M.S. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Daniel, L. , Mohagheghian, S. , Dunlap, D. , Ruhlman, E. , and Elbing, B. R. , 2015, “ Design of a High Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2015-52030.
Wosnik, M. , and Arndt, R. A. , 2006, “Testing of a 1:6 Scale Physical Model of the Large, Low-Noise Cavitation Tunnel (LOCAT),” St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN, Project Report No. 486.
Mori, T. , Komatsu, Y. , Kaneko, H. , Sato, R. , Izumi, H. , Yakushiji, R. , and Iyota, M. , 2003, “ Hydrodynamic Design of the Flow Noise Simulator,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2003-45304.
Wetzel, J. M. , and Arndt, R. E. A. , 1994, “ Hydrodynamic Design Considerations for Hydroacoustic Facilities—Part I: Flow Quality,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116(2), pp. 324–331. [CrossRef]
Arndt, R. E. A. , and Weitendorf, E.-A. , 1990, “Hydrodynamic Considerations in the Design of the Hydrodynamics and Cavitation Tunnel (HYKAT) of HSVA,” Schiffstechnik, 37(3), pp. 95–103.
Gindroz, B. , and Billet, M. L. , 1998, “ Influence of the Nuclei on the Cavitation Inception for Different Types of Cavitation on Ship Propellers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 120(1), pp. 171–178. [CrossRef]
Daniel, L. , 2014, “Design and Installation of a High Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel,” M.S. thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.
Farsiani, Y. , and Elbing, B. R. , 2016, “ Characterization of a Custom-Designed, High-Reynolds Number Water Tunnel,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2016-7866.
White, F. M. , 2006, Viscous Fluid Flow, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 430–438.
Patel, V. C. , 1965, “ Calibration of the Preston Tube and Limitations on Its Use in Pressure Gradients,” J. Fluid Mech., 23(1), pp. 185–208. [CrossRef]
Nagib, H. M. , and Chauhan, K. A. , 2008, “ Variations of Von Kármán Coefficient in Canonical Flows,” Phys. Fluids, 20(10), p. 101518. [CrossRef]
Oweis, G. F. , Winkel, E. S. , Cutbrith, J. M. , Ceccio, S. L. , Perlin, M. , and Dowling, D. R. , 2010, “ The Mean Velocity Profile of a Smooth-Flat-Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds Number,” J. Fluid Mech., 665, pp. 357–381. [CrossRef]
Schultz, M. P. , 2002, “ The Relationship Between Frictional Resistance and Roughness for Surfaces Smoothed by Sanding,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124(2), pp. 492–499. [CrossRef]
Acharya, M. , Bornstein, J. , and Escudier, M. P. , 1986, “ Turbulent Boundary Layers on Rough Surfaces,” Exp. Fluids, 4(1), pp. 33–47. [CrossRef]
Lumley, J. L. , and McMahon, J. F. , 1967, “ Reducing Water Tunnel Turbulence by Means of a Honeycomb,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 89(4), pp. 764–770. [CrossRef]
Loehrke, R. J. , and Nagib, H. M. , 1976, “ Control of Free-Stream Turbulence by Means of Honeycombs—A Balance Between Suppression and Generation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98(3), pp. 342–355. [CrossRef]
Nagib, H. M. , Marion, A. , and Tan-Atichat, J. , 1984, “ On the Design of Contractions and Settling Chambers for Optimal Turbulence Manipulation in Wind Tunnels,” AIAA Paper No. 84-0536.
Purdy, H. G. , 1948, “Model Experiments for the Design of a Sixty Inch Water Tunnel,” St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN, Technical Report No. 10.
Morel, T. , 1975, “ Comprehensive Design of Axisymmetric Wind-Tunnel Contractions,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 97(2), pp. 225–233. [CrossRef]
Bell, J. H. , and Mehta, R. D. , 1988, “Contraction Design for Small Low-Speed Wind Tunnels,” NASA, Mountain View, CA, Report No. NASA-CR-177488.
Hasselmann, K. , Reinker, F. , au der Wiesche, S. , and Kenig, E. Y. , 2015, “ Numerical Optimization of a Piece-Wise Conical Contraction Zone of a High-Pressure Wind Tunnel,” ASME Paper No. AJKFluids2015-15064.
Wetzel, J. M. , and Arndt, R. E. A. , 1994, “ Hydrodynamic Design Considerations for Hydroacoustic Facilities—Part II: Pump Design Factors,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116(2), pp. 332–337. [CrossRef]
Roshko, A. , 1961, “ Experiments on the Flow Past a Circular Cylinder at Very High Reynolds Number,” J. Fluid Mech., 10(3), pp. 345–356. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the high-Reynolds number, low turbulence recirculating water tunnel. Ports downstream of honeycomb sections are temperature and static pressure measurements.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Test section schematic of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement orientation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Test-section inlet power spectra scaled using K41 theory. The dashed line shows the famous k−5/3 slope.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The mean streamwise velocity (u) from x∼0.5m;z=0 scaled with Ue and the test-section height (Hc)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Outer variable (δ, Ue) scaled mean velocity profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Scaled momentum thickness versus Reynolds number with the dashed and solid lines being the power-law fit and canonical ZPG flat-plate solution [25], respectively. (b) Inner variable scaled velocity profiles compared to the log-law, u+=lny+/0.41+5.0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Reθ operation range as a function of Rex for a given freestream speed

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In