0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Effect of Jet Oscillation on the Maximum Impingement Plate Skin Friction

[+] Author and Article Information
Adam Ritcey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: ritceya@mcmaster.ca

Joseph R. McDermid

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: mcdermi@mcmaster.ca

Samir Ziada

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: ziadas@mcmaster.ca

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 2, 2017; final manuscript received February 21, 2018; published online April 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Devesh Ranjan.

J. Fluids Eng 140(9), 091201 (Apr 19, 2018) (16 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1632; doi: 10.1115/1.4039515 History: Received October 02, 2017; Revised February 21, 2018

The maximum impingement plate skin friction and flow field is measured for an acoustically forced planar impinging gas jet using oil film interferometry (OFI) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), respectively. The study is performed at a jet Reynolds number of Rejet = 11,000 and an impingement distance H, which is set to eight times the nozzle width W. The planar impinging gas jet is forced at the jet nozzle exit using Strouhal numbers StH = 0.39, 0.76, and 1.1, which are similar to those associated with the jet-plate tones measured in air-knife wiping experiments. The flow-field measurements indicate that the jet column oscillates at the applied forcing frequency, and depending on the forcing frequency, organized vortex structures can be identified in the shear layers that impinge on the plate surface. Both of these jet oscillation features result in a reduction in the time-averaged maximum impingement plate skin friction. This skin friction reduction is attributed to momentum loss at the jet centerline caused by increased levels of fluid entrainment and mixing of the surrounding quiescent fluid.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Arthurs, D. , and Ziada, S. , 2012, “ Self-Excited Oscillations of a High-Speed Impinging Planar Jet,” J. Fluids Struct., 34, pp. 236–258. [CrossRef]
Marsh, A. H. , 1961, “ Noise Measurements Around a Subsonic Air Jet Impinging on a Plane, Rigid Surface,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 33(8), pp. 1065–1066. [CrossRef]
Neuwerth, G. , 1974, “Acoustic Feedback Phenomena of a Subsonic and Hypersonic Free Jet Impinging on a Foreign Body,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. NASA TT F-15719.
Ho, C.-M. , and Nosseir, N. S. , 1981, “ Dynamics of an Impinging Jet—Part 1: The Feedback Phenomenon,” J. Fluid Mech., 105(1), pp. 119–142. [CrossRef]
Nosseir, N. S. , and Ho, C.-M. , 1982, “ Dynamics of an Impinging Jet—Part 2: The Noise Generation,” J. Fluid Mech., 116(1), pp. 379–391. [CrossRef]
Arthurs, D. , and Ziada, S. , 2011, “ The Planar Jet-Plate Oscillator,” J. Fluids Struct., 27(1), pp. 105–120. [CrossRef]
Arthurs, D. , and Ziada, S. , 2014, “ Effect of Nozzle Thickness on the Self-Excited Impinging Planar Jet,” J. Fluids Struct., 44, pp. 1–16. [CrossRef]
Arthurs, D. , Ziada, S. , and Goodwin, F. , 2012, “ Noise Generation by the Gas Wiping Jets of Continuous Galvanizing Lines,” J. Fluids Therm. Sci., 1(2), pp. 85–129.
Rockwell, D. , and Naudascher, E. , 1979, “ Self-Sustained Oscillations of Impinging Free Shear Layers,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 11(1), pp. 67–94. [CrossRef]
Ho, C.-M. , and Huang, L.-S. , 1982, “ Subharmonics and Vortex Merging in Mixing Layers,” J. Fluid Mech., 119(1), pp. 443–473. [CrossRef]
Kopiev, V. F. , Zaitsev, M. Y. , Inshakov, S. I. , and Guriashkin, L. P. , 2003, “ Visualization of the Large-Scale Vortex Structures in Excited Turbulent Jets,” J. Visualization, 6(3), pp. 303–311. [CrossRef]
Brown, G. B. , 1935, “ On Vortex Motion in Gaseous Jets and the Origin of Their Sensitivity to Sound,” Proc. Phys. Soc., 47(4), p. 703. [CrossRef]
Sato, H. , 1960, “ The Stability and Transition of a Two-Dimensional Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 7(1), pp. 53–80. [CrossRef]
Michalke, A. , 1964, “ On the Inviscid Instability of the Hyperbolictangent Velocity Profile,” J. Fluid Mech., 19(4), pp. 543–556. [CrossRef]
Freymuth, P. , 1966, “ On Transition in a Separated Laminar Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 25(4), pp. 683–704. [CrossRef]
Crow, S. C. , and Champagne, F. , 1971, “ Orderly Structure in Jet Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 48(3), pp. 547–591. [CrossRef]
Hussain, A. F. , and Zaman, K. , 1981, “ The Preferred Mode of the Axisymmetric Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 110(1), pp. 39–71. [CrossRef]
Hussain, A. , and Thompson, C. , 1980, “ Controlled Symmetric Perturbation of the Plane Jet: An Experimental Study in the Initial Region,” J. Fluid Mech., 100(2), pp. 397–431. [CrossRef]
Cohen, J. , and Wygnanski, I. , 1987, “ The Evolution of Instabilities in the Axisymmetric Jet—Part 1: The Linear Growth of Disturbances Near the Nozzle,” J. Fluid Mech., 176(1), pp. 191–219. [CrossRef]
Raman, G. , Zaman, K. B. , and Rice, E. J. , 1989, “ Initial Turbulence Effect on Jet Evolution With and Without Tonal Excitation,” Phys. Fluids A, 1(7), pp. 1240–1248. [CrossRef]
Rajagopalan, S. , and Ko, N. , 1996, “ Velocity and Spanwise Vorticity Measurements in an Excited Mixing Layer of a Plane Jet,” Exp. Fluids, 20(5), pp. 346–357. [CrossRef]
Alekseenko, S. , Markovich, D. , and Semenov, V. , 2002, “ Turbulent Structure of a Gas-Liquid Impinging Jet,” Fluid Dyn., 37(5), pp. 684–694. [CrossRef]
Olsen, J. , Rajagopalan, S. , and Antonia, R. , 2003, “ Jet Column Modes in Both a Plane Jet and a Passively Modified Plane Jet Subject to Acoustic Excitation,” Exp. Fluids, 35(3), pp. 278–287. [CrossRef]
Birbaud, A.-L. , Durox, D. , Ducruix, S. , and Candel, S. , 2007, “ Dynamics of Free Jets Submitted to Upstream Acoustic Modulations,” Phys. Fluids, 19(1), p. 013602. [CrossRef]
Hsiao, F.-B. , and Huang, J.-M. , 1990, “ On the Evolution of Instabilities in the Near Field of a Plane Jet,” Phys. Fluids A, 2(3), pp. 400–412. [CrossRef]
Ziada, S. , 1995, “ Feedback Control of Globally Unstable Flows: Impinging Shear Flows,” J. Fluids Struct., 9(8), pp. 907–923. [CrossRef]
Iio, S. , Hirashita, K. , Katayama, Y. , Haneda, Y. , Ikeda, T. , and Uchiyama, T. , 2013, “ Jet Flapping Control With Acoustic Excitation,” J. Flow Control Meas. Visualization, 1(2), p. 49. [CrossRef]
Chambers, F. , and Goldschmidt, V. , 1982, “ Acoustic Interaction With a Turbulent Plane Jet: Effects on Mean Flow,” AIAA J., 20(6), pp. 797–804. [CrossRef]
Huang, J.-M. , and Hsiao, F.-B. , 1999, “ On the Mode Development in the Developing Region of a Plane Jet,” Phys. Fluids, 11(7), pp. 1847–1857. [CrossRef]
Kozlov, G. , Grek, G. , Sorokin, A. , and Litvinenko, Y. A. , 2008, “ Influence of Initial Conditions at the Nozzle Exit on the Structure of Round Jet,” Thermophys. Aeromechanics, 15(1), pp. 55–68. [CrossRef]
Azevedo, L. , Webb, B. , and Queiroz, M. , 1994, “ Pulsed Air Jet Impingement Heat Transfer,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 8(3), pp. 206–213. [CrossRef]
Janetzke, T. , Nitsche, W. , and Täge, J. , 2008, “ Experimental Investigations of Flow Field and Heat Transfer Characteristics Due to Periodically Pulsating Impinging Air Jets,” Heat Mass Transfer, 45(2), pp. 193–206. [CrossRef]
Yeh, Y.-L. , Hsu, C.-C. , Chiang, C.-H. , and Hsiao, F.-B. , 2009, “ Vortical Structure Evolutions and Spreading Characteristics of a Plane Jet Flow Under Anti-Symmetric Long-Wave Excitation,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 33(4), pp. 630–641. [CrossRef]
Samimy, M. , Kim, J.-H. , Kastner, J. , Adamovich, I. , and Utkin, Y. , 2007, “ Active Control of High-Speed and High-Reynolds-Number Jets Using Plasma Actuators,” J. Fluid Mech., 578, pp. 305–330. [CrossRef]
Sinha, A. , Alkandry, H. , Kearney-Fischer, M. , Samimy, M. , and Colonius, T. , 2012, “ The Impulse Response of a High-Speed Jet Forced With Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators,” Phys. Fluids, 24(12), p. 125104. [CrossRef]
Crawley, M. B. , Kuo, C.-W. , and Samimy, M. , 2016, “ Vortex Dynamics and Sound Emission in an Excited High-Speed Jet,” AIAA Paper No. 2016-2985.
Kuo, C.-W. , Cluts, J. , and Samimy, M. , 2017, “ Effects of Excitation Around Jet Preferred Mode Strouhal Number in High-Speed Jets,” Exp. Fluids, 58(4), p. 35. [CrossRef]
Gutmark, E. , and Ho, C.-M. , 1983, “ Preferred Modes and the Spreading Rates of Jets,” Phys. Fluids, 26(10), pp. 2932–2938. [CrossRef]
Kozlov, V. V. , Grek, G. R. , and Litvinenko, Y. A. , 2016, “ Plane Jets Affected by Initial Conditions and Acoustic Perturbations,” Visualization of Conventional and Combusting Subsonic Jet Instabilities, Springer, Berlin, pp. 51–63. [CrossRef]
Beltaos, S. , and Rajaratnam, N. , 1973, “ Plane Turbulent Impinging Jets,” J. Hydraul. Res., 11(1), pp. 29–59. [CrossRef]
Tu, C. , and Wood, D. , 1996, “ Wall Pressure and Shear Stress Measurements Beneath an Impinging Jet,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 13(4), pp. 364–373. [CrossRef]
Zhe, J. , and Modi, V. , 2001, “ Near Wall Measurements for a Turbulent Impinging Slot Jet (Data Bank Contribution),” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123(1), pp. 112–120. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y. , and Wood, D. , 2002, “ Measurements in the Vicinity of a Stagnation Point,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 25(8), pp. 605–614. [CrossRef]
Lacanette, D. , Gosset, A. , Vincent, S. , Buchlin, J.-M. , and Arquis, É. , 2006, “ Macroscopic Analysis of Gas-Jet Wiping: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Approach,” Phys. Fluids, 18(4), p. 042103. [CrossRef]
Dogruoz, M. B. , Ortega, A. , and Westphal, R. V. , 2015, “ Measurements of Skin Friction and Heat Transfer Beneath an Impinging Slot Jet,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 60, pp. 213–222. [CrossRef]
Patel, V. , 1965, “ Calibration of the Preston Tube and Limitations on Its Use in Pressure Gradients,” J. Fluid Mech., 23(1), pp. 185–208. [CrossRef]
New, T. , and Long, J. , 2015, “ Dynamics of Laminar Circular Jet Impingement Upon Convex Cylinders,” Phys. Fluids, 27(2), p. 024109. [CrossRef]
Long, J. , and New, T. , 2016, “ Vortex Dynamics and Wall Shear Stress Behaviour Associated With an Elliptic Jet Impinging Upon a Flat Plate,” Exp. Fluids, 57(7), p. 121.
Amili, O. , Hind, M. D. , Naughton, J. W. , and Soria, J. , 2016, “ Evaluation of a Film-Based Wall Shear Stress Measurement Technique in a Turbulent Channel Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 70, pp. 437–442. [CrossRef]
Phares, D. J. , Smedley, G. T. , and Flagan, R. C. , 2000, “ The Wall Shear Stress Produced by the Normal Impingement of a Jet on a Flat Surface,” J. Fluid Mech., 418, pp. 351–375. [CrossRef]
El Hassan, M. , Assoum, H. H. , Sobolik, V. , Vétel, J. , Abed-Meraim, K. , Garon, A. , and Sakout, A. , 2012, “ Experimental Investigation of the Wall Shear Stress and the Vortex Dynamics in a Circular Impinging Jet,” Exp. Fluids, 52(6), pp. 1475–1489. [CrossRef]
El Hassan, M. , Assoum, H. , Martinuzzi, R. , Sobolik, V. , Abed-Meraim, K. , and Sakout, A. , 2013, “ Experimental Investigation of the Wall Shear Stress in a Circular Impinging Jet,” Phys. Fluids, 25(7), p. 077101. [CrossRef]
Zaman, K. , and Hussain, A. , 1980, “ Vortex Pairing in a Circular Jet Under Controlled Excitation—Part 1: General Jet Response,” J. Fluid Mech., 101(3), pp. 449–491. [CrossRef]
Janetzke, T. , and Nitsche, W. , 2009, “ Time Resolved Investigations on Flow Field and Quasi Wall Shear Stress of an Impingement Configuration With Pulsating Jets by Means of High Speed PIV and a Surface Hot Wire Array,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 30(5), pp. 877–885. [CrossRef]
Ceccio, S. L. , 2010, “ Friction Drag Reduction of External Flows With Bubble and Gas Injection,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(1), pp. 183–203. [CrossRef]
Young, R. M. , Hargather, M. , and Settles, G. , 2013, “ Shear Stress and Particle Removal Measurements of a Round Turbulent Air Jet Impinging Normally Upon a Planar Wall,” J. Aerosol Sci., 62, pp. 15–25. [CrossRef]
Ritcey, A. , McDermid, J. R. , and Ziada, S. , 2017, “ The Maximum Skin Friction and Flow Field of a Planar Impinging Gas Jet,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(10), p. 101204. [CrossRef]
Davy, C. , Alvi, F. , and Naughton, J. , 2002, “ Surface Flow Measurements of Micro-Supersonic Impinging Jets,” AIAA Paper No. 2002-3196.
Naughton, J. W. , Schabron, B. , Hind, M. D. , and Alvi, F. , 2011, “ Improved Wall Shear Stress Measurements on a Supersonic Microjet Impingement Surface,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-1096.
Naughton, J. W. , and Brown, J. L. , 1997, “ Skin-Friction Distribution Near a Cylinder Mounted on a Flat Plate,” AIAA Paper No. 97-1783.
Peterson, S. D. , and Plesniak, M. W. , 2004, “ Surface Shear Stress Measurements Around Multiple Jets in Crossflow Using the Fringe Imaging Skin Friction Technique,” Exp. Fluids, 37(4), pp. 497–503. [CrossRef]
Johansson, T. G. , Mehdi, F. , Shiri, F. , and Naughton, J. W. , 2005, “ Skin Friction Measurements Using Oil Film Interferometry and Laser Doppler Anemometry,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-4673.
Zanoun, E.-S. , Nagib, H. , and Durst, F. , 2009, “ Refined CF Relation for Turbulent Channels and Consequences for High-Re Experiments,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 41(2), p. 021405. [CrossRef]
Schülein, E. , 2014, “ Optical Method for Skin-Friction Measurements on Fast-Rotating Blades,” Exp. Fluids, 55(2), p. 1672.
Drake, A. , and Kennelly, R. A. , 1999, “ In-Flight Skin Friction Measurements Using Oil Film Interferometry,” J. Aircr., 36(4), pp. 723–725. [CrossRef]
Melling, A. , 1997, “ Tracer Particles and Seeding for Particle Image Velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 8(12), p. 1406. [CrossRef]
Scarano, F. , and Riethmuller, M. L. , 2000, “ Advances in Iterative Multigrid PIV Image Processing,” Exp. Fluids, 29(Suppl. 1), pp. S051–S060.
Naughton, J. W. , and Sheplak, M. , 2002, “ Modern Developments in Shear-Stress Measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 38(6–7), pp. 515–570. [CrossRef]
Desse, J.-M. , 2003, “ Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement Under White Light,” AIAA J., 41(12), pp. 2468–2477. [CrossRef]
Naughton, J. , and Hind, M. , 2013, “ Multi-Image Oil-Film Interferometry Skin Friction Measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24(12), p. 124003. [CrossRef]
Pailhas, G. , Barricau, P. , Touvet, Y. , and Perret, L. , 2009, “ Friction Measurement in Zero and Adverse Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer Using Oil Droplet Interferometric Method,” Exp. Fluids, 47(2), pp. 195–207. [CrossRef]
Segalini, A. , Rüedi, J.-D. , and Monkewitz, P. A. , 2015, “ Systematic Errors of Skin-Friction Measurements by Oil-Film Interferometry,” J. Fluid Mech., 773, pp. 298–326. [CrossRef]
Coleman, H. W. , and Steele, W. G. , 2009, Experimentation, Validation, and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
Pritchard, P. J. , 2011, Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 8, Wiley, New York, p. 440.
Smith, B. L. , and Glezer, A. , 1998, “ The Formation and Evolution of Synthetic Jets,” Phys. Fluids, 10(9), pp. 2281–2297. [CrossRef]
Blevins, R. D. , 1984, Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, p. 236.
Arthurs, D. , 2012, “Self-Excited Oscillations of the Impinging Planar Jet,” Ph.D. thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Yu, M.-H. , and Monkewitz, P. A. , 1993, “ Oscillations in the Near Field of a Heated Two-Dimensional Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 255(1), pp. 323–347. [CrossRef]
Ellen, C. , and Tu, C. , 1984, “ An Analysis of Jet Stripping of Liquid Coatings,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 106(4), pp. 399–404. [CrossRef]
Hussain, A. F. , 1986, “ Coherent Structures and Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 173(1), pp. 303–356. [CrossRef]
Krothapalli, A. , Rajkuperan, E. , Alvi, F. , and Lourenco, L. , 1999, “ Flow Field and Noise Characteristics of a Supersonic Impinging Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 392, pp. 155–181. [CrossRef]
Alvi, F. S. , Shih, C. , Elavarasan, R. , Garg, G. , and Krothapalli, A. , 2003, “ Control of Supersonic Impinging Jet Flows Using Supersonic Microjets,” AIAA J., 41(7), pp. 1347–1385. [CrossRef]
Huerre, P. , and Monkewitz, P. A. , 1990, “ Local and Global Instabilities in Spatially Developing Flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 22(1), pp. 473–537. [CrossRef]
Ho, C.-M. , and Hsiao, F.-B. , 1983, “ Evolution of Coherent Structures in a Lip Jet,” Structure of Complex Turbulent Shear Flow, Springer, Berlin, pp. 121–136. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The dominant acoustic tone expressed as StH produced by a self-excited oscillating planar impinging gas jet as a function of Mach number for various impingement ratios (H/W = 2−32) (Reproduced with permission from Arthurs and Ziada [1]. Copyright 2012 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

An instantaneous image of a self-excited oscillating impinging planar gas jet in the fluid resonant regime Ma = 0.87, H/W = 10, W = 3 mm, f ≈ 9.5 kHz (Reproduced with permission from Arthurs and Ziada [7]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional schematic of the experimental planar impinging gas jet facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

PIV setup for capturing planar impinging gas jet flow field

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Interferogram obtained on the impingement plate of a planar impinging gas jet and (b) light and camera setup at image station

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time signals of the acoustic particle velocity measured with a single hot-wire probe at the jet nozzle exit for frequencies (a) 36 Hz, (b) 70 Hz, and (c) 100 Hz. All signals obtained with Ujet = 0. Inset (d) shows a cross-sectional schematic of speaker box outlet positioned at the jet nozzle edge. The solid dot represents the measurement location of the hot-wire probe.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) The velocity magnitude flood plots for the no-excitation, 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz anti-symmetric 1% amplitude cases. (b) The centerline u¯-component velocity as a function of downstream z/W distance. (c) Transverse u¯-component velocity profiles at downstream locations z/W = 2 and z/W = 6 for the test cases. The wider profiles measured at the z/W = 6 location.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The cross-stream v¯-component of velocity as a function of downstream z/W distance. The upper curves that sweep downward in the plot are measured at x/W = −1.5 below the lower jet shear layer, and the lower curves that sweep upward in the plot are measured at x/W = +1.5 above the upper jet shear layer, for the no-excitation, 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz anti-symmetric 1% amplitude cases.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The turbulence intensity flood plots for the no-excitation, 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz anti-symmetric 1% amplitude cases. (I) Upper sections represent the streamwise turbulence intensity field expressed as a percentage (u′u′¯/Ujet)×100 and (II) lower sections represent the cross-stream turbulence intensity fields expressed as a percentage (v′v′¯/Ujet)×100.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) The maximum streamwise turbulence intensity magnitude and (b) maximum cross-stream turbulence intensity magnitude within the jet column region (−1.5 < x/W < 1.5) as a function of downstream z/W distance for all test cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Phase-locked PIV vorticity fields for the 36 Hz excitation case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Phase-locked PIV vorticity fields for the 70 Hz excitation case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Phase-locked PIV vorticity fields for the 100 Hz excitation case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Static pressure distributions obtained along the impingement plate for the unexcited, 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz and (b) pressure gradient distributions along the impingement plate for the unexcited, 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The skin friction distribution obtained using OFI for the no-excitation case (left), with the dashed line representative of the maximum skin friction value used for reference. The velocity magnitude plot for the no-excitation case (right).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Phase-locked PIV velocity magnitude plots (phase 0 deg) for (u″/Ujet)×100 ≈1% (top), and corresponding OFI skin friction distributions (bottom) for 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz anti-symmetric excitation, respectively. The horizontal dashed line indicates the magnitude of maximum skin friction with no excitation for reference.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Phase-locked PIV velocity magnitude plots (phase 0 deg) for (u″/Ujet)×100 ≈ 10% (top), and corresponding OFI skin friction distributions (bottom) for 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz anti-symmetric excitation, respectively. The horizontal dashed line indicates the magnitude of maximum skin friction with no excitation for reference.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Phase-locked PIV velocity magnitude plots (phase 0 deg) for (u″/Ujet)×100 ≈ 10% (top), and corresponding OFI skin friction distributions (bottom) for 36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz symmetric excitation, respectively. Horizontal dashed line indicates magnitude of maximum skin friction with no excitation for reference.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

The maximum skin friction reduction percentage as a function of the three excitation frequencies tested (36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz) under different anti-symmetric excitation levels. Each data point is complemented with its corresponding phase 0 deg vorticity plot.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

The maximum skin friction reduction percentage as a function of the three excitation frequencies tested (36 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz) under different symmetric excitation levels. Each data point is complemented with its corresponding phase 0 deg vorticity plot.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In