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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

On the Development of Incompressible Round and Equilateral Triangular Jets Due to Reynolds Number Variation

[+] Author and Article Information
Seyed Sobhan Aleyasin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
e-mail: aleyasss@myumanitoba.ca

Nima Fathi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131
e-mail: nfathi@unm.edu

Mark Francis Tachie

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
e-mail: mark.tachie@umanitoba.ca

Peter Vorobieff

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131
e-mail: kalmoth@unm.edu

Mikhail Koupriyanov

Price Industries Limited,
Winnipeg, MB R2K 3Z9, Canada
e-mail: mikek@priceindustries.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 3, 2018; final manuscript received April 12, 2018; published online May 18, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Devesh Ranjan.

J. Fluids Eng 140(11), 111202 (May 18, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4040031 History: Received January 03, 2018; Revised April 12, 2018

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of Reynolds number (Re = 6000–20,000) on mean and turbulent quantities as well as turbulent structures in the near and intermediate regions of equilateral triangular and round sharp contraction jets. The results show shorter potential core length, faster growth of turbulence intensity, and faster diffusion of turbulent structures to the centerline of the triangular jets, implying enhanced mixing in the near field of these jets. On the other hand, the velocity decay and jet spread rates are higher in the round jets. The obtained data in the round jets show that the jet at Re = 6000 has the most effective mixing, while an increase in Reynolds number reduces the mixing performance. In the triangular jets, however, no Reynolds number effects were observed on the measured quantities including the length of the potential core, the decay and spread rates, the axis-switching locations, and the value of the Reynolds number. In addition, the asymptotic values of the relative turbulence intensities on the jet centerline are almost independent of the Reynolds number and geometry. The ratios of transverse and spanwise Reynolds stresses are unity except close to the jet exit where the flow pattern in the major plane of the triangular jet deflects toward the flat side. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis revealed that turbulent structures in minor and major planes have identical fractional kinetic energy. The integral length scales increased linearly with the streamwise distance with identical slope for all the test cases.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Sharp contraction round nozzle, (b) the measurement planes of round and equilateral triangular nozzles. In the triangular nozzle, the horizontal (along y-axis) and vertical (along z-axis) lines represent major and minor axes, respectively. Dimensions are in millimeter.

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Fig. 2

Contours of normalized streamwise mean velocity in the (a) round jet, and in the (b and c) major and minor planes of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000. Normalized vorticity contours are also displayed. Solid lines represent positive vorticity while dashed lines denote negative vorticity. (d) Normalized instantaneous swirling strength in the round jet at Re = 20,000.

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Fig. 3

Streamwise mean velocity decay on jet centerline

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Fig. 4

(a) Half-velocity widths in the major planes of the triangular jets, and (b) half-velocity widths of the round jets and equivalent half-velocity widths of the triangular jets

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Fig. 5

Ratio of local Reynolds number over the maximum Reynolds number of the jets

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Fig. 6

Profiles of the normalized streamwise mean velocity in the symmetry plane of the round jet at (a) Re = 6000 and (b) Re = 20,000, and in the (c) minor and (d) major planes of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000

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Fig. 7

Nondimensional contour plots of streamwise turbulence intensity in (a) the round and in the ((b) and (c)) major and minor planes of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000

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Fig. 8

Fraction of non-zero swirling motions (a) in the round jet and (b) in the minor plane of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000

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Fig. 9

Streamwise turbulence intensity of round jets at (a) Re = 6000 and (b) Re = 20,000, and in the (c) minor and (d) major planes of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000

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Fig. 10

Transverse turbulence intensity in the (a) round jet and in the (c) major plane of the triangular jet and (b) spanwise turbulence intensity in the minor plane of the triangular jet at Re = 20,000. (d) The ratio of Reynolds stresses on the centerline of the triangular jets.

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Fig. 11

Distribution of fractional and cumulative turbulent kinetic energy for the first 50 modes at (a) 0 < x/d < 10 and (b) 10 < x/d < 20 of the triangular jets

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Fig. 12

Contours of two-point auto-correlation function, Rvv on the centerline of the triangular jet at (a) x/d = 4, (b) x/d = 15, and (c) x/d = 22 at Re = 20,000, and one-dimensional profiles of (d) Ruu and (e) Rvv, Rww extracted on the centerline of the jets at Re = 6000 and 20,000 at x/d = 4 and 15

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Fig. 13

The distribution of the integral length scales (a) in the streamwise direction (LTx) and (b) transverse (LTy) and spanwise (LTz) directions along the jet centerline

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