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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Drag Characterization Study of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

[+] Author and Article Information
Upender K. Kaul

NASA Ames Research Center,
Moffett Field, CA 94035
e-mail: upender.kaul@nasa.gov

Nhan T. Nguyen

NASA Ames Research Center,
Moffett Field, CA 94035
e-mail: nhan.t.nguyen@nasa.gov

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 9, 2017; final manuscript received April 16, 2018; published online May 18, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ioannis K. Nikolos.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Fluids Eng 140(10), 101108 (May 18, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1573; doi: 10.1115/1.4040070 History: Received September 09, 2017; Revised April 16, 2018

A Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) computational study was conducted to investigate the effect of various variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF) configurations on the lift and drag of a NASA generic transport model (GTM) wing section. Out of the five two-dimensional (2D) VCCTEF configurations considered with varying camber in the three-segment flap region, with a total deflection of 6 deg, the best stall performance was exhibited by the circular and parabolic arc camber flaps. Both circular and parabolic arc flaps give similar lift performance, with the circular arc yielding a higher lift coefficient and parabolic arc resulting in the lowest drag and hence the best L/D performance at design Cl. Analysis of results based on linear theory shows excellent agreement between computed and theoretical incremental lift.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

VCCTEF deployed on a GTM

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Fig. 2

Variation of Cl with α for the NACA0012 airfoil: comparison of experiment and CFD simulations

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Fig. 3

Drag polar plot for the NACA0012 airfoil: comparison of experiment and CFD simulations

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Fig. 4

Variation of Cp for α of 1.49 deg for the NACA0012 airfoil: comparison of experiment and CFD simulations

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Fig. 5

NASA/Boeing VCCTEF configuration

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Fig. 6

Geometries for the VCCTEF configurations and the baseline (not to scale)

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Fig. 7

Different VCCTEF configurations

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Fig. 8

Geometries for the S-shaped VCCTEF and baseline configurations (not to scale)

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Fig. 9

Representative near-body grid for the VCCTEF222 configuration

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Fig. 10

Grid convergence on baseline configuration: (a) Clα and (b) ClCd

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Fig. 11

Baseline and VCCTEF comparison: variation of drag with α

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Fig. 12

Baseline and VCCTEF lift curve comparison: variation of lift with α

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Fig. 13

Baseline and VCCTEF lift curve comparison: variation of lift with α around stall

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Fig. 14

Baseline and VCCTEF drag polar comparison: variation of Cl with Cd

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Fig. 15

Baseline and VCCTEF drag polar comparison: variation of Cl with Cd near minimum drag

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Fig. 16

Baseline and VCCTEF comparison: variation of L/D with Cl

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Fig. 17

Baseline and S-shaped VCCTEF comparison: variation of L/D with Cl

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Fig. 18

Cp comparison over baseline and VCCTEF configurations for α = 0 deg

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Fig. 19

Mach number comparison over baseline and VCCTEF configurations for α = 0 deg

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Fig. 20

Mach contours for the VCCTEF6 case

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Fig. 21

Pressure contours for baseline for α = 0 deg

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Fig. 22

Mach contours for baseline for α = 0 deg

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Fig. 23

Mach contours for baseline for α = 3 deg

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Fig. 24

Mach contours for VCCTEF6 for α = 3 deg

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Fig. 25

Mach contours for VCCTEF123 for α = 3 deg

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Fig. 26

Mach contours for VCCTEF6 for α = 5 deg

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Fig. 27

Mach contours for VCCTEF123 for α = 5 deg

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Fig. 28

Baseline case: comparison of overall drag and pressure drag

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Fig. 29

Baseline case: convergence time history of the mean flow and turbulence solutions

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Fig. 30

Baseline case: convergence time history of Cl and Cd: (a) Cl and (b) Cd

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