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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Hemodynamics Characteristics of a Four-Way Right-Atrium Bypass Connector

[+] Author and Article Information
Elizabeth Mack

Department of Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Laboratory for Turbomachinery and
Components,
Virginia Tech,
Norris Hall, Room 107, 495 Old Turner Street,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: emack434@vt.edu

Alexandrina Untaroiu

Department of Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Laboratory for Turbomachinery and
Components,
Virginia Tech,
Norris Hall, Room 324, 495 Old Turner Street,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: alexu@vt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 7, 2017; final manuscript received April 30, 2018; published online June 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Arindam Banerjee.

J. Fluids Eng 140(12), 121106 (Jun 26, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1568; doi: 10.1115/1.4040214 History: Received September 07, 2017; Revised April 30, 2018

Currently, the surgical procedure followed by the majority of cardiac surgeons to address right ventricular dysfunction is the Fontan procedure, which connects the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava (IVC) directly to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA and RPA, respectively) bypassing the right atrium. The goal of this study is to develop a patient-specific four-way connector to bypass the dysfunctional right ventricle and augment the pulmonary circulation. The four-way connector was intended to channel the blood flow from the inferior and superior vena cava directly to the RPA and LPA. By creating a connector with proper hemodynamic characteristics, one can control the jet flow interactions between the inferior and superior vena cava and streamline the flow toward the RPA and LPA. The focus for this study was on creating a system that could identify the optimal configuration for the four-way connector for patients from 0 to 20 years of age. A platform was created in ANSYS that utilized the design of experiments (DOE) function to minimize power-loss and blood damage propensity in the connector based on junction geometries. It was confirmed that as the patient's age and artery size change, the optimal size and shape of the connector also changes. However, the corner radius did not decrease at the same rate as the opening diameters. However, it was found that power losses within the connector decrease, and average and maximum blood traversal time through the connector increased for increasing opening radius.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Univentricular heart geometry compared to lateral tunnel and extracardiac Fontan configurations for univentricular heart [7]

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Fig. 2

Fenestrated Fontan configuration for univentricular heart [7]

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Fig. 3

Cross sections of four different configurations for the four-way connection

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Fig. 4

Connector and propeller configuration from Ref. [11]

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Fig. 5

Flared Fontan cross section

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Fig. 6

Three-dimensional image of connector and visual representation of opening and corner radii

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Fig. 7

Computational model. Illustration of boundary conditions for the model, with inlets at the top and bottom and outlets on the left and right.

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Fig. 8

Visualization of the mesh for a right bypass connector

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Fig. 9

Predicted results versus observed results for output variables from design points for the 11–15 age group. All of the points are very close to the one to one ratio line, showing that this is a good representation of the model.

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Fig. 10

Output data for different corner radii for the 1–5 age group

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the candidate points found in the optimization for opening corner ratio (top left), power loss (top right), average time in model (bottom left), and maximum time in model (bottom right)

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Fig. 12

Velocity (top) and pressure (bottom) contours for the three of the candidate points candidate points for the 1–5 age group in order from left to right

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Fig. 13

Streamline comparison between (top) baseline and (bottom) optimized models

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Fig. 14

Pressure contour comparison between (top) baseline and (bottom) optimized models

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Fig. 15

Velocity contour comparison between (top) baseline and (bottom) optimized models

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Fig. 16

Q-Criterion vortex core region with vorticity contour coloring

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