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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

A Flow Control Study of a Simplified, Oscillating Truck Cabin Using PANS

[+] Author and Article Information
G. Minelli

Division of Fluid Dynamics,
Mechanics and Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden
e-mail: minelli@chalmers.se

S. Krajnović

Division of Fluid Dynamics,
Mechanics and Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden

B. Basara

Advanced Simulation Technologies,
AVL List GmbH,
Hans-List-Platz 1,
Graz 8020, Austria

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 18, 2017; final manuscript received May 2, 2018; published online June 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jun Chen.

J. Fluids Eng 140(12), 121101 (Jun 13, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1509; doi: 10.1115/1.4040225 History: Received August 18, 2017; Revised May 02, 2018

This work presents an application of the partially averaged Navier–Stokes (PANS) equations for an external vehicle flow. In particular, the flow around a generic truck cabin is simulated. The PANS method is first validated against experiments and resolved large eddy simulation (LES) on two static cases. As a consequence, PANS is used to study the effect of an active flow control (AFC) on a dynamic oscillating configuration. The oscillation of the model represents a more realistic ground vehicle flow, where gusts (of different natures) define the unsteadiness of the incoming flow. In the numerical study, the model is forced to oscillate with a yaw angle 10 deg > β > –10 deg and a nondimensional frequency St = fW/Uinf = 0.1. The effect of the periodic motion of the model is compared with the quasi-static flow condition. At a later stage, the dynamic configuration is actuated by means of a synthetic jet boundary condition. Overall, the effect of the actuation is beneficial. The actuation of the AFC decreases drag, stabilizes the flow, and reduces the size of the side recirculation bubble.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A sketch of the separated flow regions of a truck: (a) the main sources of aerodynamic drag and (b) the A-pillar separation and the effect of the actuation

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Fig. 2

The slot that defines the AFC: (a) the slot location and (b) a sketch of the jet flow by means of a membrane motion

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Fig. 3

The numerical domain

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Fig. 4

A sketch of the model used in this study. (a) A three-dimensional representation of the simplified truck cabin. The red line indicates the AFC position, the blue dashed lines indicate location of the pressure tabs. (b) A top view of the model; two configurations at β = 0 deg and β = 10 deg.

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Fig. 5

Probing points located on the horizontal plane z = 0 (model centerline). Flow from left to right.

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Fig. 6

Time history of four points located in the side recirculation bubble (for points' locations refer to Fig. 5). LES gray and PANS black. T corresponds to one complete oscillation period.

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Fig. 7

Time history of four points located in the wake (for points' locations refer to Fig. 5). LES gray and PANS black. T corresponds to one complete oscillation period.

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Fig. 8

Fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra for PANS (black) and LES (gray). Point 4 (a) and point 6 (b) (for points' locations refer to Fig. 5).

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Fig. 9

Isosurface of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity. PANS (a) and LES (b) dynamic simulations. β = 5 deg clockwise rotation.

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Fig. 10

Turbulent kinetic energy Ek spectra at points 9 (for point's location refer to Fig. 5). LES gray and PANS black: (a) LES against unactuated PANS case and (b) LES against actuated PANS case. The dashed line shows the −5/3 slope.

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Fig. 11

Forces values comparison: (a) Cd and (b) Cs. Static simulations values are represented with dots and dynamic unactuated simulation values with solid lines. LES results are shown in gray and PANS results in black.

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous streamwise flow velocity (a), (c), and (e) and isosurfaces of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity (b), (d), and (f). The static (a) and (b), the dynamic configuration at β = 0 deg during a counter clockwise (positive) rotation (c) and (d) and a clockwise (negative) rotation (e) and (f).

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Fig. 13

Instantaneous streamwise flow velocity (a), (c), and (e) and isosurfaces of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity (b), (d), and (f). The static (a) and (b) and the dynamic configuration at β = 5 deg during a counter clockwise (positive) rotation (c) and (d) and a clockwise (negative) rotation (e) and (f).

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Fig. 14

Instantaneous streamwise flow velocity (a) and (c) and isosurfaces of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity (b) and (d). The static (a) and (b) and the dynamic (c) and (d) configuration at β = 10 deg.

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Fig. 15

Forces values comparison: Cd (a) and Cs (b). Static simulations values are represented with dots and dynamic unactuated simulation values with solid lines. The dynamic actuated simulation results are shown using dashed lines.

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Fig. 16

Cp on the side faces D and B of the model (refer to Fig. 4). Instantaneous Cp on D (a) and B (b) faces (instant presented in Fig. 19(a)), unactuated case. Instantaneous Cp on D (c) and B (d) faces (instant presented in Fig. 19(f)), actuated case.

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Fig. 17

Cp on the side faces D and B of the model (refer to Fig. 4). Instantaneous Cp on D (a) and B (b) faces (instant presented in Fig. 19(e)), unactuated case. Instantaneous Cp on D (c) and B (d) faces (instant presented in Fig. 19(l)), actuated case.

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Fig. 18

Averaged Cp on D face (refer to Fig. 4) over four complete oscillations: (a) unactuated case and (b) actuated case

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Fig. 19

Instantaneous streamwise flow velocity: unactuated (a)–(e) and actuated (f)–(l) case. From top: β = 0 deg counter clockwise rotation (a) and (f), β = 5 deg counter clockwise rotation (b) and (g), β = 10 deg (c) and (h), β = 5 deg clockwise rotation (d) and (i), β = 0 deg clockwise rotation (e) and (l).

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Fig. 20

Isosurface of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity. Unactuated (a)–(e) and actuated (f)–(l) case. From top: β = 0 deg counter clockwise rotation (a) and (f), β = 5 deg counter clockwise rotation (b) and g), β = 10 deg (c) and (h), β = 5 deg clockwise rotation (d) and (i), β = 0 deg clockwise rotation (e) and (l).

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Fig. 21

Isosurface of the second invariant of the velocity colored by the streamwise flow velocity. Unactuated (a) and actuated (b) cases. β = 5 deg clockwise rotation.

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Fig. 22

FFT spectra for unactuated (solid) and actuated (dashed) cases: (a) Point 4, and (b)point 6 (for points' locations refer to Fig. 5)

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