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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Performance Assessment of Transition Models for Three-Dimensional Flow Over NACA4412 Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers

[+] Author and Article Information
İlyas Karasu

Adana Science and Technology University,
Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Gültepe Mahallesi,
Sarıçam 01250, Adana, Turkey
e-mail: ikarasu@adanabtu.edu.tr

Mustafa Özden

Wind Engineering and Aerodynamic
Research Laboratory,
Department of Energy Systems Engineering,
Erciyes University,
Kayseri 38039, Turkey
e-mail: mustafaozden@gmail.com

Mustafa Serdar Genç

Wind Engineering and Aerodynamic
Research Laboratory,
Department of Energy Systems Engineering,
Erciyes University,
Kayseri 38039, Turkey
e-mail: musgenc@erciyes.edu.tr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 27, 2017; final manuscript received May 3, 2018; published online June 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Oleg Schilling.

J. Fluids Eng 140(12), 121102 (Jun 13, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1695; doi: 10.1115/1.4040228 History: Received October 27, 2017; Revised May 03, 2018

The performance of the transition models on three-dimensional (3D) flow of wings with aspect ratios (AR) of 1 and 3 at low Reynolds number was assessed in this study. For experimental work; force measurements, surface oil and smoke-wire flow visualizations were performed over the wings with NACA4412 section at Reynolds numbers of 2.5 × 104, 5 × 104, and 7.5 × 104 and the angles of attack of 8 deg, 12 deg, and 20 deg. Results showed that the AR had significant effects on the 3D flow structure over the wing. According to the experimental and numerical results, the flow over the wing having lower ARs can be defined with wingtip vortices, axial flow, and secondary flow including spiral vortex inside the separated flow. When the angle of attack and Reynolds number was increased, wing-tip vortices were enlarged and interacted with the axial flow. At higher AR, flow separation was dominant, whereas wing-tip vortices suppressed the flow separation over the wing with lower AR. In the numerical results, while there were some inconsistencies in the prediction of lift coefficients, the predictions of drag coefficients for two transition models were noticeably better. The performance of the transition models judged from surface patterns was good, but the k–kLω was preferable. Secondary flow including spiral vortices near the surface was predicted accurately by the k–kLω. Consequently, in comparison with experiments, the predictions of the k–kLω were better than those of the shear stress transport (SST) transition.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for AR = 1 wing

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Fig. 2

Dimensions of the domain

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Fig. 3

Mesh structure over the wing

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Fig. 4

Experimental [40] and numerical CL and CD for different grids at the angle of attack of 8 deg, Re = 2.5 × 104 for AR = 1 wing using the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 5

Experimental [40] and numerical CL and CD for different grids at α = 8 deg, Re = 5 × 104 for AR = 3 wing using the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 6

Experimental [40] and numerical aerodynamic coefficients for AR = 1 wing at different Reynolds numbers

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Fig. 7

Experimental [40] and numerical aerodynamic coefficients for AR = 3 wing at different Reynolds numbers

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Fig. 8

Photographs of smoke-wire experiments and numerical streamlines (AR = 1, Re = 2.5 × 104, z/c = 0.4)

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Fig. 9

Photographs of smoke-wire experiments and numerical streamlines (AR = 1, Re = 5 × 104, z/c = 0.4)

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Fig. 10

Photographs of smoke-wire experiments and numerical streamlines (AR = 3, Re = 2.5 × 104, z/c = 0.4)

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Fig. 11

Photographs of smoke-wire experiments and numerical streamlines (AR = 3, Re = 5 × 104, z/c = 0.4)

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Fig. 12

Photographs of smoke-wire experiments for AR = 1 and AR = 3 wings and numerical streamlines (z/c = 0.1)

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Fig. 13

Photographs of oil-flow experiments [40] and numerical Cfs over the wing with AR = 1

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Fig. 14

Photographs of oil-flow experiments [40] and numerical Cfs over the wing with AR = 3

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Fig. 15

Photographs of oil-flow experiments [40] and numerical path lines over the wing with AR = 1 for the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 16

Photographs of oil-flow experiments [40] and numerical path lines over the wing with AR = 3 for the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 17

Distributions of experimental [40] and numerical dimensionless u velocity at α = 8 deg, z/c = 0.4 for AR = 1 and AR = 3

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Fig. 18

Distributions of experimental [40] and numerical turbulence intensity at α = 8 deg, z/c = 0.4 for AR = 1 and AR = 3

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Fig. 19

Distributions of experimental [40] and numerical TKE at α = 8 deg, z/c = 0.4 for AR = 1 and AR = 3

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Fig. 20

Turbulence intensity distributions and streamlines on crossflow axis for AR = 1 at (a) α = 8 deg and (b) α = 20 deg (Re = 5 × 104) for the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 21

Turbulence intensity distributions and streamlines on crossflow axis for AR = 3 at (a) α = 8 deg and (b) α = 20 deg (Re = 5 × 104) for the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 22

Turbulence intensity distributions and streamlines on chordwise axis for AR = 1 at (a) α = 8 deg and (b) α = 20 deg (Re = 5 × 104) for the kkLω transition model

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Fig. 23

Dimensionless x-velocity distributions and streamlines on chordwise axis for AR = 3 at (a) α = 8 deg and (b) α = 20 deg (Re = 5 × 104) for the kkLω transition model

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