Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Hydrodynamic Cavitation Downstream a Micropillar Entrained Inside a Microchannel—A Parametric Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Arash Nayebzadeh

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: arash.nayebzadeh@knights.ucf.edu

Hanieh Tabkhi

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: hanieh.tabkhi@knights.ucf.edu

Yoav Peles

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: yoav.peles@ucf.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 5, 2018; final manuscript received May 18, 2018; published online June 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Shizhi Qian.

J. Fluids Eng 141(1), 011101 (Jun 27, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1014; doi: 10.1115/1.4040374 History: Received January 05, 2018; Revised May 18, 2018

Hydrodynamic cavitation downstream a range of micropillar geometries entrenched in a microchannel were studied experimentally. Pressurized helium gas at the inlet tank and vacuum pressure at the outlet propelled distilled water through the device and trigger cavitation. The entire process from cavitation inception to the development of elongated attached cavity was recorded. Three modes of cavitation inception were observed and key parameters of cavitation processes, such as cavity length and angle of attachment, were compared among various micropillar geometries. Cavitation downstream of a triangular micropillar was found to have a distinct inception mode with relatively high cavitation inception numbers. After reaching its full elongated form, it prevailed through a larger system pressures and possessed the longest attached cavity. Cavity angle of attachments was predominantly related to the shape of the micropillar. Micropillars with sharp vertex led to lower cavity attachment angles close to the flow separation point, while circular micropillars resulted in higher angles. Twin circular micropillars have a unique cavitation pattern that was affected by vortex shedding. Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) analysis of the cavity image intensity revealed transverse cavity shedding frequencies in various geometries and provided an estimation for vortex shedding frequencies.

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of cavitation inception in the presence of vortex shedding in low Reynolds number flow over a circular cylinder. Adapted from Ref. [27].

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Fig. 2

Schematic top view of microchannel in the vicinity of pillar. Dashed line depicts the section where pillar velocity, Vp, was calculated. Pp was measured in the middle of the pillar.

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Fig. 3

The package and the microdevice. (a) A computer-aided design schematic of the packaging assembly: the package, the microdevice, a cover plate to keep the microdevice in the package gap, and O-rings to prevent leakage. Flow entered the package and was guided toward the device through flow passages. (b) A schematic of the microdevice with the pillar.

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Fig. 4

Schematic top-view of the pillars used in this study and their corresponding dimensions. The black regions correspond to the pillars' hollow regions where pressure measurement (Pp) was obtained.

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Fig. 5

Schematic demonstration of the experimental fluidic loop. The driving force was provided by vacuuming the outlet tank. Pin and Pout were measured before and after the fluid entered the package, respectively.

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Fig. 6

Cavitation inception modes for (a) single circular pillar—bubble shedding, (b) triangle pillar—bubble shedding accompanied with stationary bubble in the wake region, (c) diamond pillar—sudden formation of attached cavity, and (d) twin circle pillars—bubble shedding

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Fig. 7

High speed camera images demonstrating cavitation inception modes and time instances downstream a triangular pillar (1, 2): intermittent attached cavity and bubble shedding from both sides, (3, 4, 5): separated cavity vapor moving in the wake region, and (6): formation of attached cavity, Re = 1997, σi = 2.74

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Fig. 8

Top view sketch of the wake region downstream a triangular bluff body. Near-wake region with shear layer vortices, a transition region, and a far-wake region with 2D and three-dimensional primary and secondary Kármán vortices, adopted from Ref. [23].

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Fig. 9

Comparison of cavitation inception numbers at various Reynolds numbers for four pillar configurations

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Fig. 10

Snapshots of elongated cavity formation for (a) a single circle pillar, (b) a triangle pillar, (c) a diamond pillar, and (d) two circular pillars. The grayscale denotes cavity relative position in the channel.

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Fig. 11

Dimensionless vapor cavity length as a function of cavitation number for four configurations. Cavity lengths are not strong functions of cavitation number. Attached cavity length averaged over 2000 frames. For the twin circles, the average length of the two cavities was calculated.

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Fig. 12

System pressure effect on the length of attached cavity for the various pillars studied. Numbers show the pertinent cavitation numbers for each case.

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Fig. 13

Schematic view of flow pattern behind twin cylinders placed side-by-side with the dominant vortex shedding mode of “anti-phase”

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Fig. 14

Filtered image showing attached cavities. Side white lines show the edge of cavity pocket, while the middle lines correspond to the locations where the cavity is attached to the top channel wall, Re = 1853.

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Fig. 15

Time history of image brightness content (a)(c) over an arbitrary time interval for circular, triangular, and diamond pillars and the corresponding FFT amplitude spectrum (d)–(f) of image brightness



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