Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Investigating the Mixing Efficiencies of Liquid-to-Liquid Chemical Injection Manifolds for Aquatic Invasive Species Management

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas J. Zolper

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin,
Platteville, WI 53818
e-mail: Zolpert@uwplatt.edu

Aaron R. Cupp

U.S. Geological Survey,
Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center,
La Crosse, WI 54603

David L. Smith

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research and
Development Center,
Vicksburg, MS 39180

1Corresponding author.



Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 27, 2017; final manuscript received August 10, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Paolucci. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Fluids Eng 141(3), 031302 (Oct 04, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1760; doi: 10.1115/1.4041361 History: Received November 27, 2017; Revised August 10, 2018

Aquatic invasive species (AIS) have spread throughout the United States via major rivers and tributaries. Locks and dams positioned along affected waterways, specifically lock chambers, are being evaluated as potential management sites to prevent further expansion into new areas. Recent research has shown that infusion of chemicals (e.g., carbon dioxide) into water can block or kill several invasive organisms and could be a viable option at navigational structures such as lock chambers because chemical infusion would not interfere with vessel passage or lock operation. Chemical treatments near lock structures will require large-scale fluid-mechanic systems and significant energy. Mixing must extend to all stagnation regions within a lock structure to prevent the passage of an invasive fish. This work describes the performance of both wall- and floor-based CO2-infused-water to water injection manifolds targeted for lock structures in terms of mixing time, mixing homogeneity, injection efficiency, and operational power requirements. Both systems have strengths and weaknesses so selection recommendations are given for applications such as open systems and closed systems.

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Fig. 6

Diagram of the numbers and positions of 12 pH sensors as well as the locations of Sonde “triplets” at the (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

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Fig. 5

Diagrams of the centerline positions of the (a) floor manifold and (b) wall manifold in the UMESC test pond

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Fig. 4

(a) Overview of experimental piping network and (b) cross-sectional view of cylindrical CO2 injection module

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Fig. 3

Solid models of the (a) converging (C-) nozzles and (b) CD-nozzles used on the wall manifold at the UMESC large test pond

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Fig. 2

Overhead view of the wall manifold showing ten CD nozzles

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Fig. 1

Approximate internal dimensions of (a) UMESC large test pond and (b) the auxiliary lock at Lock and Dam 14 (not to scale)

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Fig. 7

Calibration curves (solid lines) and associated error ranges to relate acidity measurements of UMESC well water at 41 °F (5 °C: black diamonds and dashed lines) and 59 °F (15 °C: white circles and dotted lines) to their respective CO2 content

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Fig. 8

Measurements of (a) water acidity and (b) corresponding CO2 concentration for the floor manifold at V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at the intermediate South or “c” location shown in Fig. 6

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Fig. 9

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the floor manifold at V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

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Fig. 10

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the floor installation at the South detector positions and (a) V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 500 CFH (236 L/min), (b) V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min), (c) V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 500 CFH (236 L/min), and (d) V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min)

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Fig. 11

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with C-nozzles at V˙H2O  = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

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Fig. 12

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with C-nozzles at V˙H2O = 2500 GPM (9464 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

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Fig. 13

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with CD-nozzles at V˙H2O = 2500 GPM (9464 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

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Fig. 14

Proposed configurations of (a) floor manifold and (b) wall manifold in the auxiliary lock at Lock and Dam 14 near Bettendorf, IA



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