Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Investigating the Mixing Efficiencies of Liquid-to-Liquid Chemical Injection Manifolds for Aquatic Invasive Species Management

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas J. Zolper

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin,
Platteville, WI 53818
e-mail: Zolpert@uwplatt.edu

Aaron R. Cupp

U.S. Geological Survey,
Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center,
La Crosse, WI 54603

David L. Smith

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research and
Development Center,
Vicksburg, MS 39180

1Corresponding author.



Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 27, 2017; final manuscript received August 10, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Paolucci. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Fluids Eng 141(3), 031302 (Oct 04, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1760; doi: 10.1115/1.4041361 History: Received November 27, 2017; Revised August 10, 2018

Aquatic invasive species (AIS) have spread throughout the United States via major rivers and tributaries. Locks and dams positioned along affected waterways, specifically lock chambers, are being evaluated as potential management sites to prevent further expansion into new areas. Recent research has shown that infusion of chemicals (e.g., carbon dioxide) into water can block or kill several invasive organisms and could be a viable option at navigational structures such as lock chambers because chemical infusion would not interfere with vessel passage or lock operation. Chemical treatments near lock structures will require large-scale fluid-mechanic systems and significant energy. Mixing must extend to all stagnation regions within a lock structure to prevent the passage of an invasive fish. This work describes the performance of both wall- and floor-based CO2-infused-water to water injection manifolds targeted for lock structures in terms of mixing time, mixing homogeneity, injection efficiency, and operational power requirements. Both systems have strengths and weaknesses so selection recommendations are given for applications such as open systems and closed systems.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Schwieterman, J. P. , 2010, “ An Analysis of the Economic Effects of Terminating Operations at the Chicago River Controlling Works and O’Brien Locks on the Chicago Area Waterway System,” DePaul University, Chicago, IL.
Schwieterman, J. P. , 2015, “ Stopping the Asian Carp and Other Nuisance Species: Cost Projections for Separating the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins Using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Inputs,” Environ. Pract., 17(4), pp. 291–301. [CrossRef]
Noatch, M. R. , and Suski, C. D. , 2012, “ Non-Physical Barriers to Deter Fish Movements,” Environ. Rev., 20(1), pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Cupp, A. R. , Tix, J. , Smerud, J. R. , Erickson, R. A. , Fredricks, K. T. , Amberg, J. , Suski, C. D. , and Wakeman, R. , 2017, “ Using Dissolved Carbon Dioxide to Alter the Behavior of Invasive round Goby,” Manag. Biol. Invasions, 8(4), pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Cupp, A. R. , Woiak, Z. , Erickson, R. A. , Amberg, J. J. , and Gaikowski, M. P. , 2017, “ Carbon Dioxide as an Under-Ice Lethal Control for Invasive Fishes,” Manag. Biol. Invasions, 19(9), pp. 2543–2552. [CrossRef]
Cupp, A. R. , Erickson, R. A. , Fredricks, K. T. , Swyers, N. M. , Hatton, T. , and Amberg, J. , 2017, “ Responses of Invasive Silver and Bighead Carp to a Carbon Dioxide Barrier in Outdoor Ponds,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 74(3), pp. 297–305. [CrossRef]
Donaldson, M. R. , Amberg, J. , Adhikari, S. , Cupp, A. , Jensen, N. , Romine, J. , Wright, A. , Gaikowski, M. , and Suski, C. D. , 2016, “ Carbon Dioxide as a Tool to Deter the Movement of Invasive Bigheaded Carps,” Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 145(3), pp. 657–670. [CrossRef]
Dennis, C. E. , Wright, A. W. , and Suski, C. D. , 2016, “ Potential for Carbon Dioxide to Act as a Non-Physical Barrier for Invasive Sea Lamprey Movement,” J. Gt. Lakes Res., 42(1), pp. 150–155. [CrossRef]
Lane, A. G. C. , and Rice, P. , 1982, “ Investigation of Liquid Jet Mixing Employing an Inclined Side Entry Jet,” Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 60(3), pp. 171–176.
Fossett, H. , 1951, “ The Action of Free Jets in Mixing of Fluids,” Trans Inst. Chem. Eng., 29 pp. 322–332.
Fossett, H. , and Prosser, L. E. , 1949, “ The Application of Free Jets to the Mixing of Fluids in Bulk,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 160(1), pp. 224–232. [CrossRef]
Fox, E. A. , and Gex, V. E. , 1956, “ Single-Phase Blending of Liquids,” AIChE J., 2(4), pp. 539–544. [CrossRef]
Chen, Z. , Jin, X. , Shimizu, A. , Hihara, E. , and Dang, C. , 2017, “ Effects of the Nozzle Configuration on Solar-Powered Variable Geometry Ejectors,” Sol. Energy, 150, pp. 275–286. [CrossRef]
Liu, P. , Patil, A. , and Morrison, G. , 2017, “ Multiphase Flow Performance Prediction Model for Twin-Screw Pump,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 140(3), p. 031101. [CrossRef]
Loeb, B. L. , 2017, “ Forty Years of Advances in Ozone Technology. A Review of Ozone: Science & Engineering,” Ozone Sci. Eng., 40(1), pp. 3–20.
Tian, H. , and Van de Ven, J. D. , 2017, “ Modeling and Experimental Studies on the Absorption of Entrained Gas and the Influence on Fluid Compressibility,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(10), p. 101301. [CrossRef]
Freudigmann, H. A. , Dörr, A. , Iben, U. , and Pelz, P. F. , 2017, “ Modeling of Cavitation-Induced Air Release Phenomena in Micro-Orifice Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(11), p. 111301. [CrossRef]
Bumrungthaichaichan, E. , Jaiklom, N. , Namkanisorn, A. , and Wattananusorn, S. , 2016, “ On the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis of the Effect of Jet Nozzle Angle on Mixing Time for Various Liquid Heights,” Sci. Res. Essays, 11(4), pp. 42–56.
Dinsmore, C. , Aminfar, A. , and Princevac, M. , 2017, “ Dissipative Effects of Bubbles and Particles in Shear Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(6), p. 061302. [CrossRef]
Hassan, J. M. , Mohamed, T. A. , Mohammed, W. S. , and Alawee, W. H. , 2014, “ Modeling the Uniformity of Manifold With Various Configurations,” J. Fluids, 2014, p. 8. [CrossRef]
Gandhi, M. S. , Ganguli, A. A. , Joshi, J. B. , and Vijayan, P. K. , 2012, “ CFD Simulation for Steam Distribution in Header and Tube Assemblies,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 90(4), pp. 487–506. [CrossRef]
Bajura, R. A. , and Jones, E. H. , 1976, “ Flow Distribution Manifolds,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98(4), pp. 654–665. [CrossRef]
Bajura, R. A. , 1971, “ A Model for Flow Distribution in Manifolds,” J. Eng. Power, 93(1), pp. 7–12. [CrossRef]
Majumdar, A. K. , 1980, “ Mathematical Modelling of Flows in Dividing and Combining Flow Manifold,” Appl. Math. Model., 4(6), pp. 424–432. [CrossRef]
Tong, J. C. , Sparrow, E. M. , and Abraham, J. P. , 2009, “ Geometric Strategies for Attainment of Identical Outflows Through All of the Exit Ports of a Distribution Manifold in a Manifold System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(17–18), pp. 3552–3560. [CrossRef]
Pathapati, S. S. , Mazzei, A. L. , Jackson, J. R. , Overbeck, P. K. , Bennett, J. P. , and Cobar, C. M. , 2016, “ Optimization of Mixing and Mass Transfer in in-Line Multi-Jet Ozone Contactors Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” Ozone Sci. Eng., 38(4), pp. 245–252. [CrossRef]
Subaschandar, N. , and Sakthivel, G. , 2016, “ Performance Improvement of a Typical Manifold Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” 7th International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Technologies, Cape Town, South Africa, Feb. 1–3, pp. 1–4.
Cui, X. , Wu, K. , Shen, J. , and Sun, Y. , 2015, “ Numerical Analysis of Nozzles' Energy Loss Based on Fluent,” Second International Workshop on Material Engineering and Computer Science, Florence, Italy, May 18.
Yang, Y. , Zhang, J. , and Nie, S. , 2013, “ Energy Loss of Nozzles in Water Jet System, Jixie Gongcheng XuebaoChinese,” J. Mech. Eng., 49(2), pp. 139–145. [CrossRef]
Zhdanov, V. , and Hassel, E. , 2013, “ Mixing Enhancement in a Coaxial Jet Mixer,” Adv. Mater. Phys. Chem., 2(4), p. 134. [CrossRef]
Zaman, K. , Reeder, M. F. , and Samimy, M. , 1994, “ Control of an Axisymmetric Jet Using Vortex Generators,” Phys. Fluids, 6(2), pp. 778–793. [CrossRef]
Yu, S. C. M. , Chua, L. P. , and Wang, X. K. , 2004, “ Measurements in the Near Field of a Confined Coaxial Square Jet,” AIAA J., 42(5), pp. 965–972. [CrossRef]
Quinn, W. R. , 2005, “ Near-Field Measurements in an Equilateral Triangular Turbulent Freejet,” AIAA J., 43(12), pp. 2574–2585. [CrossRef]
Nikitopoulos, D. E. , Bitting, J. W. , and Gogineni, S. , 2003, “ Comparisons of Initially Turbulent, Low-Velocity-Ratio Circular and Square Coaxial Jets,” AIAA J., 41(2), pp. 230–239. [CrossRef]
Smith, L. L. , Majamaki, A. J. , Lam, I. T. , Delabroy, O. , Karagozian, A. R. , Marble, F. E. , and Smith, O. I. , 1997, “ Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector,” Phys. Fluids, 9(3), pp. 667–678. [CrossRef]
Majamaki, A. J. , Smith, O. I. , and Karagozian, A. R. , 2003, “ Passive Mixing Control Via Lobed Injectors in High-Speed Flow,” AIAA J., 41(4), pp. 623–632. [CrossRef]
Bradbury, L. J. S. , and Khadem, A. H. , 1975, “ The Distortion of a Jet by Tabs,” J. Fluid Mech., 70(4), pp. 801–813. [CrossRef]
Samimy, M. , Zaman, K. , and Reeder, M. F. , 1993, “ Effect of Tabs on the Flow and Noise Field of an Axisymmetric Jet,” AIAA J., 31(4), pp. 609–619. [CrossRef]
Reeder, M. F. , and Samimy, M. , 1996, “ The Evolution of a Jet With Vortex-Generating Tabs: Real-Time Visualization and Quantitative Measurements,” J. Fluid Mech., 311(1), pp. 73–118. [CrossRef]
Foss, J. K. , and Zaman, K. , 1999, “ Large-and Small-Scale Vortical Motions in a Shear Layer Perturbed by Tabs,” J. Fluid Mech., 382, pp. 307–329. [CrossRef]
Coldrey, P. W. , 1978, “ Jet Mixing,” Pap. IChemE Course, University of Bradford, UK.
Maruyama, T. , 1986, Jet Mixing of Fluids in Vessels, Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX.
Grenville, R. K. , and Tilton, J. N. , 2011, “ Jet Mixing in Tall Tanks: Comparison of Methods for Predicting Blend Times,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des, 89(12), pp. 2501–2506. [CrossRef]
Patwardhan, A. W. , and Gaikwad, S. G. , 2003, “ Mixing in Tanks Agitated by Jets,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des, 81(2), pp. 211–220. [CrossRef]
Buley, R. , Hasler, C. , Tix, J. , Suski, C. , and Hubert, T. , 2017, “ Can Ozone Be Used to Control the Spread of Freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species?,” Manage. Biol. Invasions, 8(1), pp. 13–24. [CrossRef]
Rice, E. W. , Baird, R. B. , Eaton, A. D. , and Clesceri, L. S. , 2005, “ Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Gebhart, B. , 1993, Heat Conduction and Mass Diffusion, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Rolle, K. C. , 2016, Heat and Mass Transfer, Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning, Boston, MA.
Shane, T. J. , 1996, “ Pressurized Solution Feed System for PH Control,” U.S. Patent No. 5,514,264.
Romine, J. G. , Jensen, N. R. , Parsley, M. J. , Gaugush, R. F. , Severson, T. J. , Hatton, T. W. , Adams, R. F. , and Gaikowski, M. P. , 2015, “ Response of Bigheaded Carp and Silver Carp to Repeated Water Gun Operation in an Enclosed Shallow Pond,” N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 35(3), pp. 440–453. [CrossRef]
Ruebush, B. C. , Sass, G. G. , Chick, J. J. , and Stafford, J. D. , 2012, “ In-Situ Tests of Sound-Bubble-Strobe Light Barrier Technologies to Prevent Expansions of Asian Carp,” Aquat. Invasions, 7(1), pp. 37–48. [CrossRef]
Taylor, R. M. , Pegg, M. A. , and Chick, J. H. , 2005, “ Response of Bighead Carp to a Bioacoustics Behavioral Fish Guidance System,” Fish. Manage. Ecol., 12(4), pp. 283–286. [CrossRef]
Parker, A. D. , Glover, D. C. , Finney, S. T. , Rogers, P. B. , Stewart, J. G. , and Simmonds, R. L. , 2015, “ Direct Observations of Fish Incapacitation Rates at a Large Electrical Fish Barrier in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal,” J. Great Lakes Res., 41(2), pp. 396–404. [CrossRef]
Slater, M. , Yankielun, N. , Parker, J. , and Lewandowski, M. J. , 2011, “ CSSC Fish Barrier Simulated Rescuer Touch Point Results, Operating Guidance, and Recommendations for Rescuer Safety,” United States Coast Guary Interim Study, Coast Guard Research and Development Center, New London, CT, Report No. CG-D-06-11.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Approximate internal dimensions of (a) UMESC large test pond and (b) the auxiliary lock at Lock and Dam 14 (not to scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Solid models of the (a) converging (C-) nozzles and (b) CD-nozzles used on the wall manifold at the UMESC large test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Overview of experimental piping network and (b) cross-sectional view of cylindrical CO2 injection module

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Diagrams of the centerline positions of the (a) floor manifold and (b) wall manifold in the UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Diagram of the numbers and positions of 12 pH sensors as well as the locations of Sonde “triplets” at the (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Calibration curves (solid lines) and associated error ranges to relate acidity measurements of UMESC well water at 41 °F (5 °C: black diamonds and dashed lines) and 59 °F (15 °C: white circles and dotted lines) to their respective CO2 content

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Measurements of (a) water acidity and (b) corresponding CO2 concentration for the floor manifold at V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at the intermediate South or “c” location shown in Fig. 6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the floor installation at the South detector positions and (a) V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 500 CFH (236 L/min), (b) V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min), (c) V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 500 CFH (236 L/min), and (d) V˙H2O = 2000 GPM (7571 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with C-nozzles at V˙H2O  = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with C-nozzles at V˙H2O = 2500 GPM (9464 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the wall manifold with CD-nozzles at V˙H2O = 2500 GPM (9464 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Proposed configurations of (a) floor manifold and (b) wall manifold in the auxiliary lock at Lock and Dam 14 near Bettendorf, IA

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Measurements of dissolved CO2 in water for the floor manifold at V˙H2O = 1500 GPM (5678 L/min) and V˙CO2 = 1000 CFH (472 L/min) at (a) North, (b) intermediate North, (c) intermediate South, and (d) South detector positions in UMESC test pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Overhead view of the wall manifold showing ten CD nozzles



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In