0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

A Comprehensive Hydrodynamics-Salinity-pH Model for Analyzing the Effects of Freshwater Withdrawals in Calcasieu Lake and Surrounding Water Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Ning Zhang

Department of Chemical, Civil, and
Mechanical Engineering,
McNeese State University,
Lake Charles, LA 70609
e-mail: nzhang@mcneese.edu

Xiao Han, Weihao Wang

Department of Chemical, Civil, and
Mechanical Engineering,
McNeese State University,
Lake Charles, LA 70609

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 20, 2017; final manuscript received September 6, 2018; published online November 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Bart van Esch.

J. Fluids Eng 141(5), 051103 (Nov 08, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1602; doi: 10.1115/1.4041455 History: Received September 20, 2017; Revised September 06, 2018

The study is a continuation of the authors' previous works on hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling for Calcasieu Lake area (located in southwest Louisiana) (Zhang, N., Zheng, Z. C., and Yadagiri, S., 2011, “A Hydrodynamic Simulation for the Circulation and Transport in Coastal Watersheds,” Comput. Fluids, 47(1), pp. 178–88; Zhang, N., Kee, D., and Li, P., 2013, “Investigation of the Impacts of Gulf Sediments on Calcasieu Ship Channel and Surrounding Water Systems,” Comput. Fluids, 77, pp. 125–133; Yadav, P. K., Thapa, S., Han, X., Richmond, C., and Zhang, N., 2015, “Investigation of the Effects of Wetland Vegetation on Coastal Flood Reduction Using Hydrodynamic Simulation,” ASME Paper No. AJKFluids2015-3044). The major purposes of the study are: (1) to demonstrate the new model features and validate the model results, (2) to disclose the effects of Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) and determine the boundary conditions for GIWW in the model, and (3) to use the model to analyze the effects of excessive freshwater withdrawals on the changes of hydrodynamics and salinity in the Calcasieu Lake system. Several new model features were added to the existing model framework, including the extension of modeling domain, vegetation model, salinity transport model, and pH calculation. Measurement data from NOAA and USGS are used as boundary conditions for the model. Simulation results were compared with measurement data from NOAA, USGS and other sources for validation. Due to lack of measured data for GIWW in the target area, the effect of GIWW flow conditions on the modeling results was investigated and appropriate GIWW boundary condition was determined based on numerical tests. Numerous petrochemical plants in the area use tremendous amount of fresh surface water. Recent industry expansions may further increase the demands of freshwater withdrawals. One of the purposes of the study is to use developed model to test and analyze the effects of increased freshwater withdrawal from Calcasieu River at the north boundary of the study area on the hydrodynamics and salinity in the downstream Calcasieu Lake system.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Zhang, N. , Zheng, Z. C. , and Yadagiri, S. , 2011, “ A Hydrodynamic Simulation for the Circulation and Transport in Coastal Watersheds,” Comput. Fluids, 47(1), pp. 178–88. [CrossRef]
Zhang, N. , Kee, D. , and Li, P. , 2013, “ Investigation of the Impacts of Gulf Sediments on Calcasieu Ship Channel and Surrounding Water Systems,” Comput. Fluids, 77, pp. 125–133. [CrossRef]
Yadav, P. K. , Thapa, S. , Han, X. , Richmond, C. , and Zhang, N. , 2015, “ Investigation of the Effects of Wetland Vegetation on Coastal Flood Reduction Using Hydrodynamic Simulation,” ASME Paper No. AJKFluids2015-3044.
Zhang, N. , Li, P. , and He, A. , 2014, “ Coupling of 1D and 2D Hydrodynamic Models Using an Immersed-Boundary Method,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(4), p. 040907.
Arcement, G. J. , and Schneider, V. R. , 1989, “ Guide for Selecting Manning's Roughness Coefficient for Natural Channels and Flood Plains,” USGS Water-Supply Paper, 2339, p. 39.
Richmond, C. , and Zhang, N. , 2015, “ Louisiana Environmental Research Center Chenier Plain Research,” Calcasieu Parish Police Jury, Lake Charles, LA, Report.
Zhang, K. Q. , Liu, H. Q. , Li, Y. P. , Xu, H. Z. , Shen, J. , Rhome, J. , and Smith, T. J. , 2012, “ The Role of Mangroves in Attenuating Storm Surges,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 102–103, pp. 11–23. [CrossRef]
Sarmiento, J. L. , and Bryan, K. , 1982, “ An Ocean Transport Model for the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans, 87(C1), pp. 394–408. [CrossRef]
Bauer, P. , Held, R. J. , Zimmermann, S. , Linn, F. , and Kinzelbach, W. , 2006, “ Coupled Flow and Salinity Transport Modelling in Semi-Arid Environments: The Shashe River Valley, Botswana,” J. Hydrology, 316(1–4), pp. 163–183. [CrossRef]
Duffy, P. B. , and Caldeira, K. , 1997, “ Sensitivity of Simulated Salinity in a Three-Dimensional Ocean Model to Upper Ocean Transport of Salt From Sea-Ice Formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(11), pp. 1323–1326. [CrossRef]
Johnson, B. H. , Heath, R. E. , and Butler, H. L. , 1993, “ Validation of Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of Chesapeake Bay,” J. Hydraulic Eng., 119(1), pp. 2–20. [CrossRef]
Xing, Y. , Congfang, A. , and Sheng, J. , 2013, “ A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Salinity Transport Model of Estuarine Circulation With an Application to a Macrotidal Estuary,” Appl. Ocean Res., 39, pp. 53–71. [CrossRef]
Radke, L. C. , 2002, “ Water Allocation and Critical Flows: Potential Ionic Impacts on Estuarine Organisms. Proceedings of Coast to Coast 2002 - Source to Sea,” Tweed Heads, pp. 367–370.
Henriksen, K. , and Kemp, W. M. , 1988, “ Nitrification in Estuarine and Coastal Marine Sediments,” Nitrogen Cycling in Coastal Marine Environments (Nitrification in Estuarine and Coastal Marine Sediments), T. H. Blackburn and J. Sorensen , eds., Wiley, pp. 207–249.
Dieter, C. A. , Maupin, M. A. , Caldwell, R. R. , Harris, M. A. , Ivahnenko, T. I. , Lovelace, J. K. , Barber, N. L. , and Linsey, K. S. , 2018, “ Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2015,” U.S. Geological Circular, 1441, p. 65.
Spall, R. E. , Addley, C. , and Hardy, T. , 2001, “ Numerical Analysis of Large, Gravel-Bed Rivers Using the Depth-Averaged Equations of Motion,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2001-18169.
Casulli, V. , 1990, “ Semi-Implicit Finite Difference Methods for the Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations,” J. Comput. Phys., 86(1), pp. 56–74. [CrossRef]
Li, H. H. , Christopher, W. , and Mitchell, E. B. , 2012, “ Salinity Calculations in the Coastal Modeling System,” Engineer Research and Development Center/Coastal and Hydraulics Lab, Vicksburg, MS, Report No. ERDC/CHL-CHETN-IV-80.
Piedrahita, R. H. , and Seland, A. , 1995, “ Calculation of pH in Fresh and Sea Water Aquaculture Systems,” Aquacult. Eng., 14(4), pp. 331–346. [CrossRef]
Anthoni, J. F. , 2006, “ The Chemical Composition of Seawater,” Seafriends Marine Conservation and Education Centre, Leigh, New Zealand, accessed Sept. 28, 2018, http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/seawater.htm
Lee, K. , Tong, L. T. , Millero, F. J. , Sabine, C. L. , Dickson, A. G. , Goyet, C. , Park, G. H. , Wanninkhof, R. , Feely, R. A. , and Key, R. M. , 2006, “ Global Relationships of Total Alkalinity With Salinity and Temperature in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(19), p. L19605. [CrossRef]
Abramowitz, M. , and Stegun, I. A. , 1972, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p. 1046.
USGS Water Resources, 2018, “ Current Conditions for Louisiana,” USGS—National Water Information System, Reston, VA, accessed Sept. 28, 2018, http://waterdata.usgs.gov/la/nwis/current/?type=flow
NOAA, 2018, “ Tides and Currents,” Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Service, Silver Spring, MA, accessed Sept. 28, 2018, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/
USGS Water Resources, 2018, “ USGS 07381331 GIWW at Houma, LA,” USGS-National Water Information System, Reston, VA, accessed Sept. 28, 2018, http://waterdata.usgs.gov/la/nwis/uv/?site_no=07381331&agency_cd=USGS

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Salinity histories of measured data and simulation results at site 3 among different GIWW velocity cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mean salinity values at site 3 with different GIWW velocities, comparing to measured data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Salinity history comparison of measured data and simulation results at site 4 among different GIWW velocity cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Water-surface-elevation history comparison of measured data and simulation results at site 2 among different GIWW velocity cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Water-surface-elevation history comparison of measured data and simulation results at site 3 among different GIWW velocity cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Water-surface-elevation contour comparison between (a) high tide and (b) low tide

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Two-dimensional view of Calcasieu Lake and Lake Charles topography: (a) entire domain, (b) the zoomed view of the north portion of the domain, and (c) GIS map published by Calcasieu Parish Police Jury showing the study area

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Histories of pH on two locations inside the lake

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Salinity contour comparison at a high tide instance among three GIWW velocity cases: (a) 0.1 m/s, (b) −0.18 m/s, and (c) −0.3 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Water-surface-elevation history comparison from different inlet flow rate cases at site 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Water-surface-elevation contours comparison from different inlet flow rate cases at a high tide instance: (a) 100%, (b) 90%, (c) 80%, and (d) 70%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Salinity history comparison from different inlet flow rate cases at site 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Salinity contours comparison from different inlet flow rate cases at a high tide instance: (a) 100%, (b) 90%, (c) 80%, and (d) 70%

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In