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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Effect of Sand Bed Deposits on the Characteristics of Turbulent Flow of Water in Horizontal Annuli

[+] Author and Article Information
Majid Bizhani, Ergun Kuru

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,
School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 23, 2016; final manuscript received September 10, 2018; published online November 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kausik Sarkar.

J. Fluids Eng 141(5), 051102 (Nov 08, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-16-1844; doi: 10.1115/1.4041507 History: Received December 23, 2016; Revised September 10, 2018

An experimental program was conducted to investigate turbulent flow of water over the stationary sand bed deposited in horizontal annuli. A large-scale horizontal flow loop equipped with the state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry (PIV) system has been used for the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the instantaneous local velocity profiles during turbulent flow and examine the impact of the presence of a stationary sand bed deposits on the local velocity profiles, Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence intensities. Results have shown that the existence of a stationary sand bed causes the volumetric flow to be diverted away from the lower annular gap. Increasing the sand bed height causes further reduction of the volumetric flow rate in the lower annulus. Velocity profiles near the surface of the bed deposits showed a downward shift from the universal law in wall units indicating that the flow is hydraulically rough near the sand bed. The equivalent roughness height varied with flow rates. At flow rates less than the critical flow rate, the Reynolds stress profile near the bed interface had slightly higher peak values than that of the case with no sand bed. At the critical flow rate, however, the peak Reynolds stress values for the flow over the sand bed was lower than that of the case with no bed. This behavior is attributed to the bed load transport of sand particles at the critical flow rate.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The schematic of the flow loop

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Fig. 2

Planes of the velocity measurement in the PIV experiments

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Fig. 3

PIV images showing the bed and the tracer particles

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Fig. 4

Normalized velocity profiles measured in the lower and upper annulus in presence of 6 mm thick bed at Us = 0.2 m/s

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Fig. 5

Normalized velocity profiles measured in the lower and upper annulus in presence of 16 mm thick bed at Us = 0.2 m/s

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Fig. 6

Normalized velocity profiles measured in the lower annulus at Us = 0.2 m/s for two bed heights and the no bed case

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Fig. 7

Velocity profiles in wall units measured at Us = 0.2 m/s near two beds of heights of 8 and 14 mm

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Fig. 8

Velocity profiles in wall units measured at Us = 0.24 m/s near two beds of heights of 8 and 14 mm

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Fig. 9

Near-bed velocity profiles measured at Us = 0.2 m/s with curve-fitted profile

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Fig. 10

Near-bed velocity profiles measured at Us = 0.24 m/s with curve-fitted profile

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Fig. 11

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured in the lower and upper annulus in presence of 6 mm thick bed at Us = 0.2 m/s

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Fig. 12

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured in the lower and upper annulus in presence of 16 mm thick bed at Us = 0.2 m/s

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Fig. 13

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured in the lower annulus at Us = 0.2 m/s for two bed heights and the no bed case

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Fig. 14

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured in the lower annulus at Us = 0.24 m/s for two bed heights and the no bed case

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Fig. 15

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured near the bed interface at Us = 0.2 m/s

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Fig. 16

Normalized Reynolds stress profiles measured near the bed interface at Us = 0.24 m/s

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Fig. 17

Normalized radial turbulence intensity profiles measured in the lower annulus at Us = 0.2 m/s for two bed heights and the no bed case

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Fig. 18

Normalized radial turbulence intensity profiles measured in the lower annulus at Us = 0.24 m/s for two bed heights and the no bed case

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Fig. 19

Two-dimensional vector field plot of time-averaged velocity measured in the lower annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 20

Two-dimensional vector field plot of time-averaged velocity measured in the upper annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 21

Two-dimensional vector field plot of time-averaged velocity measured in the lower annulus near the bed interface (Us = 0.2 m/s)

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Fig. 22

Contour plot of Reynolds stress in the lower annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 23

Contour plot of Reynolds stress in the upper annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 24

Contour plot of Reynolds stress near the bed interface (Us = 0.2 m/s)

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Fig. 25

Two-dimensional vector field plot of RMS of velocity fluctuations in radial direction in the lower annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 26

Two-dimensional vector field plot of RMS of velocity fluctuations in radial direction in the upper annulus (Us = 0.2 m/s, bed height = 16 mm)

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Fig. 27

Two-dimensional vector field plot of RMS of velocity fluctuations in radial direction near the bed interface (Us = 0.2 m/s)

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